Computer Science and Information Technology is the vertical of science that studies the techniques, methodologies and computational tools that automates processes and develops solutions based on the use of the digital processing. It is not restricted to the study of algorithms. Its applications and implementation are in the form of software, knowledge about the computer hardware and many more.
Few other aspects which come under this are:
- Applications technology
- Data processing of input and output devices
Thus, the Computer Science and IT also covers modeling techniques, data communication protocols and principles covering other specialties of technology.
Areas of study
The studies from this field can be applied in any area of human knowledge. It is defining methods for solving problems based on repetitions previously observed. Recent advances in this field have strongly impacted contemporary society. Applications relating to the areas of computer networks, Internet, Web and mobile computing have been used by billions of people around the globe.
used for the first time in France by Philippe Dreyfus , former director of the National Computing Centre of Bull. It is used for his company called Applied Informatics Society (AIS). This neologism is formed by the combination of the word ""information"" reduced to ""inform"" and the term ""automatic"" reduced to ""automatic"".
In that month, Walter F. Bauer opened American society Informatics Inc., Hebrands his name and that custom this word to describe the new discipline. This forced them to fall back on computer science and IT.The Association for Computing Machinery is the largest association of computer scientists in the world. When approached Informatics Inc. for anapprovalto use the word informatics and to replace the term computer machinery, the company declined the offer. The company Informatics Inc., acquired by Sterling Software [ref. needed] , ceased operations in 1986.
In 1966, in France the official use of the word is established by the French Academy to describe the ""science of information processing,"" and has widely adopted in front of the press, industry and academia.
In July 1968 , the federal Minister of Scientific Research of Germany , Gerhard Stoltenberg , pronounces the word Informatik during an official speech. He found it a need to teach this new discipline in the universities of the country. The same term is used for appoint some courses at German universities. The word informatica then makes its appearance in Italy and Spain. Later informatics is used in the UK.
The pioneer names in science of computers are Gene Amdahl ,Andrew Appel ,Bruce Arden ,Sanjeev Arora ,John Vincent Atanasoff ,Ali Aydar ,etc.
The research and developments
- Before the 1920s , computer was a term associated with people who carried out calculations, usually led by physicists. Thousands of computers were used in projects in trade, government and research sites. After the 1920s, the expression computing machine began to be used to refer to any machine that performs the work of a professional. Especially those in accordance with the methods of the Church-Turing Thesis .
- Alan Turing acknowledged as the father of computer science IT, devised the Turing machine which later developed into the modern computer.
- The mathematical fundamentals of modern computers instigated to be distinct by Kurt Gödel with his incompleteness theorem (1931 ). This theory shows that there are limits to what can be proved or disproved in a formal system. This led to subsequent work by Gödel and other theorists to define and describe such formal systems, including concepts such as recursion and lambda calculus .
- In 1936 Alan Turing and Alonzo Church independently introduced the formalization of an algorithm. The algorithm defines the limits of a computer and a purely mechanical model for computation. These topics are covered in Church-Turing Thesis , a hypothesis about the nature of mechanical calculation. This thesis positions that any probable calculation can be accomplished by an algorithm running on a computer, since there is time and enough storage for it.
- During thesis also included a description of the Turing machine that has a tape of infinite length and one head for reading and writing that moves the tape. Due to its infinite character, such a machine cannot be built. But this model can simulate the computation of any algorithm running on a modern computer. Turing is quite important in computer science and IT, that his name is used for the Turing Award and the Turing test . He contributed to the breaks code of Britain in the Second World War and later continued to design computers and computer programs till 1940. He committed suicide in 1954.
- Until the 1930s, electrical engineers were able to build electronic circuits to solve mathematical and logical problems. But most of the people performed the task in private and without any process. This changed with the masters thesis of Claude Shannon , 1937, A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits. While taking classes in Philosophy, Shannon was exposed to the work of George Boole and realized that he could apply this learning in electro-mechanical assemblies to solve problems. Shannon developed information theory in the article of 1948, The Mathematical Theory of Communication, whose content serves as a foundation to study areas such as data compression and encryption .
- Despite its short history as an academic discipline, computer science and IT has led to several fundamental contributions to science and to society. This science was responsible for the formal definition of computation and computability and proof of the existence of unsolvable problems or computationally intractable.
It was also possible to build and formalize the concept of computer language. Programming language is a tool for the precise expression of methodological information. It is flexible enough to be represented at different levels of abstraction.
To other scientific fields in general, computers has provided support for the Digital Revolution giving rise to the Information Age . The scientific computing is an area of computing that enables the advancement of studies such as genome mapping human (see Human Genome Project ).
There are several alternative definitions for computer science and IT. This can be seen as a form of science, mathematics or a new discipline that cannot be categorized according to current models.
The computer science and IT often intersects with other research areas such as physical and linguistic. But the mathematics subject is considered to have a higher degree of relationship. This is proved by the information that, the early work in the area was heavily influenced by mathematicians such as Kurt Gödel and Alan Turing. At present there is still a useful exchange of ideas between the two fields in areas like mathematical logic, the theory of categories , the domain theory , the algebra and geometry.
Another point to note is, despite its name it involves the study of rarely known machines like computers. In fact, the renowned scientist Edsger Dijkstra is widely cited by the phrase "The computer science and IT is so little related to computers as astronomy is related to telescopes."
Because of this, it is proposed to seek a defined name for this emerging science. The aim is to avoid the relationship with computers.
A first proposal was Peter Naur , who coined the term datologĂ¬a to reflect the fact that, the new discipline was concerned mainly about the processing of data. It is regardless of the tools of such treatment were mathematicians computers or devices. The first scientific institution to adopt the denomination was the Department of Datologi¬a of the University of Copenhagen , founded in 1969. The first professor is Peter Naur of datologi¬a. This term is used mainly in the Scandinavian countries . Also, in the early days, a number of terms were associated with computing practitioners.
The design and development of computers and computer systems is generally considered as a field claimed by disciplines outside computer science and IT. There is close communication of ideas between the various computer-related disciplines.
Research in computer science and IT
- Research in this discipline is also often associated with other disciplines such as cognitive science, physics(see quantum computing ) language and so on.
- The association among since of computers and software engineering is a combative concern. There are disputes over what the term really means about engineering software and how it defines computer science and IT. Some people believe that software engineering would be a subset of computer science and IT. Further, taking into account the relationship between scientific disciplines and engineering, the main goal of computer science and IT would be the study various properties of computation in general. While the goal of software engineering is to design specific computations and achieve practical goals that would become different disciplines. This view is holding, for example, Parnas (1998). Still others argue that there could be no software engineering.
Social analysis has its origin from the common stacks of western knowledge and its philosophy. It has been carried out as far as the time from the ancient Greek Philosopher Plato. He dis a survey from the sample of information collected from the sample of individuals.
The word sociology was derived from the Greek and Latin origins. ""socius"" is a Latin word which means companion and the suffix ""logy"" is a Greek word meaning knowledge. It was first derived in 1780 by a French essayist Emmanuel Joseph Sieyes in his unpublished manuscript. Earlier it was known to be social physics, which was coined by Comte who is well known to be the Philosopher of science.
Foundation of academic Sociology discipline
Emile Durkheim was the man who established the Formal academic sociology and he was the one who developed positivism as foundation to social research. Durkheim rejected many of the theories by Comte, he retained and also refined its methods.
For Durkheim, sociology is described to be the "science of institutions and their functioning along with their genesis".
Yale was the first university to be teaching sociology in 1875 by William graham Sumner. Dynamic sociology or applied social science as based upon the statistical sociology and the less complex was the book which was published by the first president of the American Sociological Association.
The department of sociology was established in 1892 by Albion Small in the University of Chicago. he also published a Sociology textbook- An introduction to study of the society. Marxism has influenced more of the European countries than the united States counterparts.
The Areas of Sociology
- Social organisation: This is a study relating to the various organisations, social stratification, ethnic groups and many other similar subjects like education, religion and politics.
- Social psychology: This is a subject dealing with the human nature and the outcome of group life along with the social attitudes and personality formation.
- Social change and disorganization: This is the subject relating to the change in culture and social relations.
- Human ecology: This subject deals with the nature and behavior of the given number of population and also its relation with the groups present social institutions.
- Population or demography: This deals with the population number and what changes it makes to the political and social system.
- Sociological theory and method: This subject is mainly concerned with the uses and principles of the group life.
- Applied Sociology: It utilizes the pure sociological researches in various fields of criminology, community development , education and many more similar topics like family counselling and marriages.
Some of the best universities for sociology
- Harvard University.
- University of California.
- London School of Economics and Science.