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Politics is one area of undeniably high importance. People all over the world are somehow involved in it, even if only a tiny bit. Its something that affects our day to day lives and our lifestyle. So what is this subject matter that plays such a crucial role in our lives about exactly? The word Politics is derived from the Greek word politikos, meaning "for, of or relating to citizens". It can also be defined as the enactment and conjecture of influencing people at a civic/individual level. It means achieving/exercising positions of authority or organizing power over a human body, at many times a state. A political system can be described as a framework which specifies acceptable political norms within a specific society or group of people. A political party is an organization that seeks to conquer and maintain political power within the government, usually by taking part in electoral campaigns, etc. Politics involves a number of tasks. Some include:
  • Promoting political views among individuals
  • Negotiation with other political figures,
  • Making/introducing laws
  • Exercising force when required
When one uses legislated government powers for their own purpose i.e private gain this act is called political corruption. Repression is also another aspect of misuse of power of government. Going against their opponents, using government police for private brutality acts does not come under political corruption. The illegal act by any government person leads to political corruption only if it is related to their daily services to be provided i.e. official duties. There are few funding practices which are not legal to one government and legal to another. There are no strongly defined powers that can clearly differentiate the illegal practices and legal practices.

Politics is a book of law which has to be followed. It is a set of business instructions and rules for the government officials to serve the country better. These activities are restricted to a particular city, area, country or village. They are the predefined activities which are performed for the political good health of the country. It is a blend of rich and poor. The desire for right justice, political freedom, security and peace of a country come into politics. At the same time, there is a negative side of the vertical too. Few people take the advantage of being in the higher position and when other people are following them. Though many great people have defined politics as a "way of handling the government of humans", few misconstrue it and exploit it. Though Aristotle and Plato did not agree with the theories and principals involved in it, they redefined politics as the right way of performing the task of a statesmen and developing the state".
What comes under politics?
  • Resource distribution to a smaller group of people or larger group based on the requirements.
  • Public affairs with neighboring states, countries and even cities.
  • Government art and handling, it is all about what government does for the benefit of a state or the country.
  • Consensus
  • Compromise
  • Public life safety and concerns.
Political Systems:
Political systems have been divided in a number of ways throughout the year. The basis of division has varied over time as development emerged all over the world. According to sociologist, the political systems are as follows:
  • Authoritarianism: In the authoritarian system, people consist neither of power nor representation. Privileged leaders handle the economic, military, and foreign relations in the area. A great example of this would be dictatorships. The most extreme form is a system called totalitarianism which controls all aspects of life including communication between citizens. It even censors the media, and threatens individuals by means of terror.
  • Monarchies:A monarchy is a government controlled by a king or queens who are decided by an inclined line of sovereignty. In todays world there are two types of monarchies. The first is the absolute monarchy, which works like a dictatorship as the king has complete rule over his country, and the second is constitutional monarchies where the royal family gets limited powers and usually works in accordance with an elected body of officials.
  • Democracy: A democracy is a type of government where the citizens directly vote for laws. The presence of democracy doesnt always mean the citizens wishes are equally represented. In many democratic countries, for example, immigrants, and racial/ethnic minorities dont receive the same rights as the majority citizens.
  • Plutocracy: under this rule the government is run by small number of prominent wealthy citizens. Unlike other political systems, it ignores the social responsibilities increases poverty, class conflicts, corruption and increase in hedonism.
  • Autocracy: rule by single person, who has the ultimate power over the system. Totalitarianism and dictatorship are similar to autocracy but not always belong to it.
  • Theocracy: in this political system the god is perceived as the head of the state hence the power lies within in the hands of priest hood.
  • Hegemony: it related to the government or dominance power of a county over another geographically different domain either it maybe political, cultural or authority.
  • Anocracy: in this type of system instead of public representatives it focuses on the distribution of power between the elite groups of the society.
  • Kritarchy: in this government is run by judges and traditional courts.
  • Federal state: in this form of government the center has the supreme power for decision making rather than the state in its internal affairs.
  • Republic: in this form of government the state affairs are matter of public related rather than private. Hence the representatives are elected rather than recommended.
  • Technocracy: in this form the political power lies in the educated and technical experts. Based on their expertise and knowledge they are elected.
  • Stratocracy: the government is run by the military service. Where it will be mandatory for the citizens to enroll into military services.
  • Maoism: a practice started in china based on the theories and beliefs of Marxism and Leninism.
  • Oligarchy: in this system the government is ruled by the small group of like minded or blood related individuals.
  • Nomocracy: in this form of government the ultimate power lies in the hands of rational laws and civil laws.
  • Imperial state: in this form of political system government is formed by force or conquest of a territory.
  • Demarchy: in this form of political system peoples representative is selected randomly from a pool of decision makers. Who are selected by the process of sortition which means selection by chance or decision making by lottery.
  • Ochlocracy: the government is run by a group of mob. It also means rule by general population.
Political Value
There are certain political values which are followed by many societies. These are :
  • Freedom: Freedom is when individualsvalue the ability to go where wanted, when wanted, how wanted, without any restriction. The ability to say what they want, how they want, when they want is valued as well. The value of freedom of worship and freedom of speech is significant as well.
  • Justice: Justice refers to fair play.
  • Better living: Improved living conditions arevalued very highly among a number of citizens.
  • Equality: Equality should be valued and vast inequalities shouldnt.
  • Rule of law: This means valuing law and order as it is supposed to give a certain amount of personal security to people. Individuals feel secure as the more law and order there is the freer they are from being criminally attacked.
Leaders in politics
Leaders may be one of the most significant characters when it comes to politics. They are the ones who drive citizens to act in a certain way. Through motivation (could be positive or negative)and persuasion they achieve their goals. There are various types of leaders out there. One way to classify them is:
  • Charismatic Leadership: A charismatic leader is one who thinks of himself or herself as a liberator. In fact, he/she is regarded by the followers as being a deliverer, savior or, maybe even a prophet. They are at many times perceived as having some sort of a special gift.
  • Paternalist Leadership: The word paternalist is derived from the Latin word, pater, meaning father. Therefore, this type of a leader is more of a parental or fatherly ď¬?gure. As he is portrayed as a parental ď¬?gure, he must be listened to, obeyed, and followed.
  • Managerialist Leadership: The Managerialist leader is simply the boss. He/she is someone who is set upon a pedestal with the followers beneath. They must listen to him or her and follow orders without hesitation.
  • Egalitarianism: This is a form of leadership where the leader and followers regard each other as equals. The leader is both respected and valued but isnot seen as being up on a platform with everyone else below him/her.
Some of the all time influential leaders of the world politics scenario are:
  • George Washington (1732-1799) founding fathers of America and its first president.
  • Agnes macphail (1890-1954) first women to be elected in Canadian House of Commons. an active participant through the history of Canadian politics.
  • Fidel Castro (born 1926) politician and communist revolutionist in cuba
  • Mao Zedong (1893-1976) Chinese communist national leader and founding father of the peoples republic of china.
  • Sir Winston Churchill (1874-1965) British prime minister at the World War 2, known as the all time influential leader of war time.
  • Yasser Arafat (1929-2004) Palestine leader who fought against Israel in the name of Palestine self determination.
  • Tunku abdul rahman (1903-1990) was a chief minister of federation of Malaya. Famously known as bapa kemerdekaan (father of independence).
  • Alexei Kosygin (1904-1980) was a soviet- Russian statesman during the cold war period.
  • Indira Gandhi (1917-1984)third prime minister of independent India and the central figure for shaping up of the Indian national congress.
  • Nelson Mandela (1918) South Africas first black African president to hold the position.
  • Aung san suu kyi (born 1945) a Burmese political and opposition leader known for her active civil right moment in Myanmar.
  • Francesco cossiga (1928-2010) an anti communist Italian leader who held the presidential post of the country.
  • Angela merkel (born 1954) German chancellor and listed as top 100 most powerful people on earth by frobes magazine.
  • John f. Kennedy (1917-1963) American president notable for his reforms and cuban missile crises.
  • Margaret thratcher (1925-2013) longest serving British prime minister known as the iron lady.
  • Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) American president who led American when it faced its worst crises- civil war and slavery.
  • Yitzhak rabin (1922-1995) Israeli politician served as a prime minister until he was assassinated. A Nobel peace prize winner.
  • Sun yat- sen (1866-1925) Chinese revolutationary and first president of republic of china (nationalist china) .
History of politics
There are a number of things covered in politics when it comes to the history of politics. They are as follows:
  • The state: The foundation of the state can be found in the development of the warfare. In fact, all political communities of modern form owe their existence to the successful warfare of the past. Kings, emperors and other types of monarchs in many countries were given high importance. Of the establishments that ruled states, kingship stood at the front position till the French Revolution put an end to it.
  • State and property:Property can be defined as the right vested in a individual/group of people to enjoy the benefits of an object (material or intellectual). The more man became knowledgeable about an object, the more it was appropriated. The exterior of the State brought about the final stage in the evolution of property from wildlife to husbandry. In the existence of the State, a man could possess landed property.
  • State and justice system: The state is concerned with the adherence of its subjects viewing disloyalty and surveillance as well as other sorts of conspiracies as unfavorable to its national security. Criminal acts, breaking peace, and treason make up criminal laws enforced by the State.
  • State and legislation: The making of laws was unfamiliar to ancient societies.Countries had no national law, in fact, until the end of the 18th century.
  • State and executive system: Administration is one of the most difficult features of government. In the enactment/enforcement of laws, the success of the state is complete, but not in regards to administration as it is easy to see the advantages of the enactment/enforcement of laws but not the administration.
There are various areas of politics that you can choose to study. These are:
  • American government: It focuses on the voting activities, public administration, lawmaking, the Constitution, public policy, the role of the courts, political parties, and other aspects of American government.
  • Comparative Politics: Comparative politics is an area which compares the systems of government in different countries.
  • International Relations: The relations based internationally among all countries, focus on examining the ways in which nations interact with one another.
  • Political Economy: The economy in politics refers to the study of how various economics and politics affect each other.
  • Political Philosophy: A few political scientists study the traditions of political philosophies from Plato to present times. This comes under political philosophy.
  • Public law: under this subject of politics it deals with the relationship of individual and the government.
  • Sociology: it deals with the aspects of human social behavior this subject varies from micro level to macro unit.
  • Public administration: this focus on the application of political policies with respect as a academic discipline to prepare public servants.
  • Political behavior: this aspect of politics deals with influences that quantify a persons ideology, political views and opinions.
Where to Study
Some of the top universities to major in politics include:
  • Harvard University (US)
  • London School of Economics & Political Science (UK)
  • Yale University (US)
  • University of Oxford (UK)
  • Princeton University (US)
  • Australian National University (Australia)
  • University of Cambridge (UK)
  • Columbia University (US)
  • University of Tokyo (Japan)
  • National University of Singapore (Singapore)
  • University of California, Berkeley (US)
Job Opportunities in politics
There are numerous career opportunities for those who wish to major in this arena of politics. They are:
  • An activist, advocate/organizer
  • An administration, government, non- government, non-profit,corporate etc.
  • An archivist, online political data
  • A budget examiner or analyst
  • An attorney
  • A banking analyst or executive
  • A campaign operative
  • A career counselor
  • A CIA analyst or agent
  • A city planner
  • A city housing administrator
  • A congressional office/committee staffer
  • A coordinator of federal or state aid
  • A communications director
  • A corporate analyst
  • A corporate public affairs advisor
  • A corporate economist
  • A corporate manager
  • A corporate information analyst
  • A corporate adviser for government relations
  • A corporate executive
  • A corporation legislative issues manager
  • An editor, online political journal
  • An entrepreneur
  • A financial consultant
  • A foreign service officer
  • A foundation president
  • A free-lance writer
  • A high school government teacher
  • An immigration officer
  • An information manager
  • An intelligence officer
  • An international agency officer
  • An international research specialist
  • An issues analyst, corporate social policy div.
  • A journalist
  • A juvenile justice specialist
  • A labor relations specialist
  • A legislative analyst / coordinator
  • A lobbyist
  • A management analyst
  • A mediator
  • A plans and review officer, USIA
  • A policy analyst
  • A political commentator
  • A pollster
  • A public affairs research analyst
  • A public opinion analyst
  • A publisher
  • A research analyst
  • A state legislator
  • A survey analyst
  • A systems analyst
  • A teacher
  • A university administrator
  • A university professor
  • An urban policy planner
  • A web content editor

 
 
 

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Volume: 8

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Politics Arts and Social Sciences
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