The word Physics from Greek which means "knowledge of nature". "Nature" is the natural science that includes the study of matter and its movement through space and time, along with interrelated concepts such as energy and force. More generally, it is the common analysis of nature, conducted in order to know how the universe behaves. Physics is all about how natures mechanisms.
Physics is one of the oldest educational disciplines, maybe the oldest through its addition of astronomy. More than the last two millennia, physics was a division of natural philosophy all along with chemistry, assured branches of mathematics, and biology, but all through the Scientific Revolution in the 17th century, the natural sciences emerged as exclusive research programs in their individual right. Physics intersects with a lot of interdisciplinary areas of research, like biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the limitations of physics are not strictly defined. Innovative ideas in physics frequentlygive explanationof the fundamental mechanisms of additional sciences, whereas opening innovative avenues of research in areas like mathematics and philosophy.
Physics also makes major contributions through advances in latest technologies that occur from theoretical breakthroughs. For instance, advances in the perceptive of electromagnetism or nuclear physics led straight to the improvement of latest products which have noticeablychanged modern-day society, like television, computers, home appliances, and nuclear weapons; researches in thermodynamics led to the growth of industrialization; and advances in mechanics motivated the expansion of calculus.
Physics deals with the mixture of matter and energy. It also deals with anextensive variety of systems, regarding which theories have been urbanized that are used by physicists. In common, theories are experimentally experiencedmany times before they are acknowledged as rightas a description of Nature. For example, the theory of classical mechanics precisely describes the sign of objects, with the assumption of being greater than atoms and moving at greatly less than the speed of light. These theories persist to be areas of energetic research: for example, anoutstandingfeature of classical mechanics famous as chaos was exposed in the 20th century, i.e three centuries later the formulation of classical mechanics by Isaac Newton. These "central theories" are significant tools for research in more focused topics, and any physicist, in spite of of his or her specialization, is predictable to be knowledgeable in them.
VARIOUS BRANCHES AVAILABLE IN PHYSICS
The main branches of physics are as follows:
Astrophysics is the division of astronomy that deals with the physics of the universe, which includes the physical properties like luminosity, density, temperature and chemical composition of astronomical objects like stars, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, along with their relations. 2. Atomic and molecular physics:
It deals with the study of the structure and characteristics of atoms and molecules.
Biophysics is the study of the application of the laws of physics to life processes.
4. Condensed-matter (solid-state) physics:
Solid state physics is the science of the physical properties of solids, like electrical, dielectric, elastic, and thermal properties, and their perceptive in terms of basic physical laws.
Cosmology is the scienceabout the universe as a total, of the contents, structure, and evolution of the universe from the commencement of time to the future.
Geophysics is the science of the physical characteristics and properties of the earth; which includes geodesy, seismology, atmospheric electricity, terrestrial magnetism, meteorology, oceanography,and tidal phenomena.
Mechanics is the division of physics anxious with the motion of bodies in a frame of reference.
8. Statistical Mechanics:
Statistical mechanics is the field that attempts to share the properties of macroscopic systems to its atomic and molecular constituents.
9. Theoretical physics:
Theoretical physics attempts to be aware of the world by building a model of reality, used for rationalizing, explanation, and predicting material phenomena in the course of a "physical theory". 10. Thermodynamics:
Thermodynamics is thelearning of the effects of changes in temperature, pressure, and volume on physical systems at the macroscopic scale by discussing the collective motion of their particles using statistics.
BRANCHES OF MECHANICS:
There are two types of sub divisions in mechanics. They are.
- Classical Mechanics
- Quantum Mechanics.
1. Classical mechanics:
In physics, classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are the two main sub-fields of mechanics. Classical mechanics is anxious with the set of physical laws telling the motion of bodies in the action of a system of forces. The learning of the motion of bodies is an olden one, building classical mechanics one of the oldest and major subjects in engineering, science and technology.
Classical mechanics explains the motion of macroscopic objects, as of projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, like spacecraft, planets, stars, and galaxies. In additionto this, several specializations in the topic deal with gases, liquids, solids, and additional specific sub-topics. Classical mechanics provides enormouslyprecise results as long as the area of study is limited to large objects and the speeds concerned do not move toward the speed of light. While the objects being dealt with become adequately small, it becomes essential to begin the other main sub-field of mechanics, quantum mechanics, which handles the macroscopic laws of physics with the atomic nature of matter and deals the waveā??particle duality of atoms and molecules. In the aspect of high velocity objects forthcoming the speed of light, classical mechanics is improved by special relativity. Common relativity unifies special relativity with Newtons law of universal gravitation, which allows physicists to grip gravitation at a deeper level.
The word classical mechanics was formed in the early 20th century to explain the system of physics begun by Isaac Newton and a lot ofmodern 17th century natural philosophers, structure upon the previous astronomical theories of Johannes Kepler, which in turn were based on the accurate observations of Tycho Brahe and the sciences of terrestrial projectile motion of Galileo. Since these topics of physics were increased long before the materialization of quantum physics and relativity, various sources eliminate Einsteins theory of relativity from this group. Still, a quantity of modern sources doescomprise relativistic mechanics, which in their analysis represents classical mechanics in its mainly developed and the majorityprecise form.
2. Quantum mechanics:
Quantum mechanics is the dissection of physics treating atomic and subatomic systems and their communication with radiation. It is based on the study that every forms of energy are unconfined in discrete units or bundles called "quanta". Extraordinarily, quantum theory classically permits just probable or statistical calculation of the practical features of subatomic particles, understood in conditions of wavefunctions. The Schrodinger equation plays the task in quantum mechanics that Newtons laws and conservation of energy provide in classical mechanics that is it predicts the upcoming behavior of a dynamic system and is a wave equation that is utilized to explain for wavefunctions.
For instance, the light, or electromagnetic radiation emitted or immersed by an atom has only definite frequencies or wavelengths, as can be seen from the line spectrum related with the chemical component represented by that atom. The quantum theory shows that those frequencies match to specific energies of the light quanta, or photons, and outcome from the reality that the electrons of the atom can have only definitepermissible energy values, or levels; when an electron particletransforms from one permissible level to another. A quantum of excess energy is liberated or absorbed whose frequency is directly relative to the energy differentiationamong the two levels. The photoelectric effect further established the quantization of light.
PHYSICS IN EVERYDAY LIFE:
The most fundamental of the sciences, physics, is all around us each day. If youve ever surprised what makes lightning, why a rebound returns, how ice skaters can rotate so fast, how Michael Jordan be able to "fly," why waves collide on the beach, how that small computer can do complex problems, or how time-consuming it takes light from a star to get in touch with us, you have been idea about some of the similar things physicists study every day.
Physicists like to pose questions. They try to discover answers for approximatelyeverything from when the universe began to why thirst-quencher fizzes. If you like to discover and figure out why effects are the way they are, you may like physics.
If youve had a back-row bench at a rock show, and could still perceive sound, you practiced physics at work! Physicists studying sound give to the design of performance halls and the amplification apparatus. Knowing additional about how things travel and interrelate can be used to supervise the flow of traffic and assist cities avoid network lock.
Lasers and radioactive elements are apparatus in the conflict on cancer and further diseases. Geophysicists are increasing methods to give progressin warning of earthquakes. The effort of physicists made achievable the computer chips that are used in digital watch, electronic games, CD player,electrical appliances and hand-held calculator.
IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICS IN THE WORLD
Physics is significant because it generates basic knowledge necessary for technological advancement, it extends and increases our perceptive of additional disciplines and it is useful to our technological infrastructure. Physics is the learning of matter, energy and how they interrelate.
Physics is essential to day by day life in other ways than can be consideration of, at first. Exclusive of physics, we wouldnt be capable to walk, or see, or have a brain to manufacture a computer also, the learning of the worlds properties, and the universe about us, allows us to appreciate a lot more about our human bodies and the surroundings we live in. This allows us to make cars for transport, surfboards for enjoyment, attractive much anything
List of universities and colleges that offer courses in physics
- University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
- Harvard University, United States
- University of Oxford, United Kingdom
- University of California, Berkeley (UCB), United States
- Stanford University, United States
- California Institute of Technology (Caltech), United States
- Imperial College London, United Kingdom
- Princeton University, United States
- ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), Switzerland
- The University of Tokyo, Japan
- University of Chicago, United States
- University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), United States
- The University of Melbourne, Australia
- Columbia University, United States
- Cornell University, United States
- University of British Columbia, Canada
- Yale University, United States
- National University of Singapore (NUS), Singapore