Philosophy is the name given to the study of general and fundamental problems like the topics connected with reality, knowledge, reason, language, mind, values and last but not the least existence. Philosophy is also distinguished by its critical, general systematic approach on rational argument.
The word "Philosophy" was first coined from the era of Ancient Greek, which literally means "love of wisdom". Pythagoras was a Greek thinker and the man behind the existence of the words "philosopher" and "philosophy".
Areas of inquiry in Philosophy:
There are many sub-fields in Philosophy which include logic, meta-physics, aesthetics and epistemology. The major areas are given below:
- Epistemology:This area is concerned with the nature and scope of the knowledge like the topics truth, theories of justification and beliefs. Skepticism is the theory which questions the possibility of complete justification of the truth. The regress argument is the problem which arises when you have to completely prove any statement where one justification depends on the justification of the other. Rationalism is a position on reasoning as a source of knowledge. Parmenides is a position which argues that it is impossible to doubt that the thinking actually occurs.
- Logic:logic is the study on the principles of correct reasoning. They are completed with the help of arguments. Arguments mostly use Deductive Reasoning, which gives certain statements called Premises and other statements are Unavoidably implied.
- Metaphysics:This is a study relating to the general features of reality like existence time, some of the relationships between mind and body, between objects and their properties. The traditional branches of metaphysics deal with cosmology, ontology and the study of being and world in its entirely.
Moral and political philosophy:
Moral philosophy or commonly known as "ethics" is primarily concerned on the questions of the best way to lead your life and secondarily on whether this question can be answered or not. The main branches are :
- Meta-ethics: This concerns the nature of ethical thoughts, for example - the origin of words and whether they are good or bad.
- Normative ethics: This area deals with the question on how one needs to act and what is the right course of action.
- Applied ethics: This is the study where ethics go beyond theory and step into the big bad real world. they deal with questions like whether an abortion is right or not. ethics is mainly associated with the idea of morality.
Specialized branches in Philosophy:
Philosophy of language, which explores the aspects of nature, its origin and all the uses of language. Philosophy of law which explores all the varying theories that explain the nature and its interpretations. Philosophy of mind which explores the nature of mind and also it relation with the body Philosophy of religion exploring the aspects of religions Philosophy of science dealing with the topics related to science Meta philosophy
History of Philosophy:
The history is divide into Eastern and Western Philosophy. The Eastern Philosophy deals with the chronological period of each region. The history of Western Philosophy deals with Ancient Philosophy,Medieval Philosophy and also Modern Philosophy. The best universities for Philosophy are:
- New York University
- Boston college which also has a 5 years program.