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English Literature
Literary Theory
World Literatures

Literatures are something that is made from letters. It is the art of writing. It may include collection of realistic information, any biography work, philosophical essays or any imaginary works of fiction, drama, stories, poems, etc. With the evolution of years, the concepts in it has been stretching its wings over categories of mystery, adventure, romance, sentimental, fantasy, crime, etc.
Evolution of Literature
  • 16th century includes the era of Old English, Middle English, followed by Renaissance, Shakespearean and Elizabethan era.
  • 17th century has witnessed the period of restoration.
  • It is in the 19th century that romanticism came into light.
  • The modernism and also the post modernism of Literature took place in 20th century.
The study on literature came on swift progress with movements like post-structuralism, feminism, romanticism post-colonialism, Marxism, psychoanalysis and post-modernism.
Classification of Literature
  • Poetry:
    • It stresses on the artistic usage of rhythmic words like in sounding or in symbolisms.
    • The complete poetry is written in the form of stanzas
    • Mainly, they depends upon the comparison and similes.
    • The earliest forms in Poetry include Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh, epics of Mahabharata and Ramayana, and many other ancient works.
    • Poetic forms which do not adhere much to poetic structure are called free verse
  • Prose:
    • It mainly concerns upon a given topic upon which a debate of words in written on the perspective of authors view.
    • It is normal structuration of grammar with ordinary flow of words.
    • The essay can be a complete, incomplete, stimulating or even open-ended also.
    • It includes genres like,
      • Memoir: it is the explanation on a story written in the perspective of author.
      • Epistle: it generally may be an educational, elegant or a formal letter.
      • This writings are capable of providing sufficient freedom to the writer that he is free to experiment on different styles and literary within his writings.
Few Genres of Literature:
  • Natural Science:
    • With the progression of specializations, the basic work of Natural science has almost got outdated.
    • We can witness some of them however through the way of journals.
    • Works of Copernicus, Aristotle and Newton hold boundless value even now in spite of their science gone into obsolete.
  • Philosophy:
    • The works of philosophy can be witnessed through many of the recent journals in academics.
    • The recognized writers of ancient times Nietzsche, Augustine Plato, Kierkegaard, Descartes, Socrates and Aristotle.
  • History:
    • This kind allows in conveying the information that is recorded.
    • Most of the writings in this cadre are out of its quality.
    • Renowned writers in history of old times includes Thucydides, Procopius and Herodotus.
  • Law:
    • Hammurabi of Babylons law tables and works from Aristotle andPlato sets up as an example for legal literature.
    • The law codes and constitutions of many countries are written under this section only.
  • Drama:
    • The artistry work of Drama includes the characters and the dialogues exchanged between them.
    • So it lays much of the importance over the dialogues that deliver the see through while reading.
    • The works of Shakespeare like Romeo and Juliet is the perfect example for romantic drama of those and also these times..
    • Another generic form of drama arouse with tragedy. This usually came up when the performances involved any religious or civic events which present serious tone.
    • Later in the year of 1938, the work used to be written for broadcast over radio for the first time.
  • Oral literature:
    • As the name only portrays, it is the literature with no written work involved.
    • It covers all types of this feild indeed like poetry, folktales, drama, epics, songs and many more.
  • Graphic Novels:
    • Graphic novels present the reader with stories that are said in dialogue, text and artwork that goes sequentially in the combination of all of them.
    • Comic books also come under the genre of Graphic novels.
  • Electronic literature:
    • These are basically literary origins in the environment of digitalization.
    • Like we come across with the animated digital videos.
  • Films:
    • Nowadays, it has been evolved over the taking of films also where in scripts of the movie are written.
    • All kinds of videos and advertisers for broadcasts are the other forms that also goes along like filming.
Types of Literature
  • Fiction
  • Non-fiction
  • It is classified based on influences of politics, periods and categories.
Enhancement of literatures work
  • The writers try to enrich the structure of their literatures with the help of literary techniques.
  • These literary techniques bound several approaches like which person should be used in writings, like first person or second person, the style of narration and also in selection of genre.
  • Through they work technique they can try in highlighting what he is supposing to convey, whether a love story or the mystery.
  • The work from Samuel Richardson with his writings of Pamela is the example of usage of such technique.
  • The writer has also the choice of using the literary devices
  • These devices have the power to make the literature work effective with the usage of similes, symbols, comparisons, abbreviations, etc.
Basics to study Literature
  • One should be aware of how it has evolved over time.
  • Get a thorough information of the changes introduced with the change of time.
  • See through the life of renowned literatures writers.
  • The foremost, understand the works of literatures as the interpretation of the authors opinion of living, his nature and also his understanding of people at those times.
  • In starting with the work of literature, make sure it has the central substance that adds the importance to the work.
  • The style taken to present the work like whether you use the style of poetry, descriptive, etc.
Analysis of Literature
  • The foremost, to spot the technique of literature incorporated.
  • For this thorough knowledge and reading of many literary works is required.
  • Once the technique is identified, brief everything that you noticed.
  • In short, it is Read-Summarize-understand the references.
  • The literary work can either be any one of them-
    • Historical Fiction
    • Fiction
    • Fable
    • Rhyme
    • Non-fiction
    • Novel
    • Biography
    • Poem
    • Anonymous
  • Broaden your skills on raising questions of what you have read.
  • Evaluate in all possible and variant ways.
Literature Criticism
It is nothing but the analysis made upon the literary work of the writer and makes the assessment of it accordingly. This helps the writer who is on his progress of writing to make necessary changes before the final completion and publication. There are actually in reality, many criticism types which has different trait of making the evaluation.
Patent rights
The writer can protect his literary work from being multiplied by applying for the patent rights. According to the law of patent, any work of literature which is protected against law cannot be duplicated nor copied without the prior approval or intimation to the writer. This safeguards the works from the great literatures from being used illegally.
Famous contributions of Ancient times
  • Shuruppak and Urukagina are supposed to be the initial literature writers.
  • The epic literature of Kurukshetra War between the Pandavas and the Kauravas is the baseline of the literature work of VedaVyasa in the form of his tributary work, Mahabharata.
  • Ramayana is the famous literature works of Hindus by Valmiki which contains the Journey of Lord Rama. It showcases the responsibilities to be taken in relationships and also lists the qualities a person should possess in becoming the Tatpurusha by being ideal in all the aspects of your life, be it father, husband, brother with the main focus upon the value of Dharma
  • Ecclesiastes the ancient literatures that leaves an influential impact on everyone which focuses on the idea that all the actions of humans are taken up ineffectively. This is one of the twelve known chapters of the Old Testament.
  • The literatures creation of Gilgamesh, is the tale of adventures taken up by the king Gilgamesh in his quest for ultimate immortality and the result he faces at the end
  • Everyone of this century is interestedin the book Panchatantra, the best collection of all stories. It is the artistic literatures work from the scholar, Vishnu Sharma. Finding Nemo, Lion King are the stories taken from this epic book only. The main characters in all the stories of Panchatantra involve animals only with each story having the moral of itself to convey.
  • The Odyssey is the living example of Western Literature works. This is bought up as the sequel work of Iliad. The story portrays the journey of the warrior Odysseus from the country of Troy to his home and the sequences that queued during the process.
  • Metamorphoses, the book from Romans, are a collection of 15 books. It emphasizes on the formation of earth, Greek history of Tradition is the greatest preserved book of ancient times that stands as the perfect example of usage in characterization and also metaphors. This epic book is the literary work of Ovid
  • The work of Romans to be able to compete with the epics of Greek, Virgil has attempted on this mythological epic. He has taken the character of Aeneas, the warrior from Trojans. The literature showcases his travel over the city of Mediterranean facing different kinds of odds before reaching Latium.
  • The literaturse work of Art of War from the famous writer from China, Sun Tzu, presents information on Wars like how to utilize the available manpower and the directions in using and getting equipped with the traditional weapons of China. This book has provided unmeasurable impact upon leaders like Douglas MacArthur, Mao Zedong and Napoleon.
  • The epic creation from the philosophers of Greek who laid the importance of history over their current times. It is Herodotus, who came up with his epic of Histories. It gives a brief outline on setting up of states at Greek city. Herodotus has been renowned with this book for his perfection in covering every subject and its details in a brief.
  • The literature work of The Egyptian Book of the Dead is not a single hand possession. Every single copy of this epic is presented by different literary writer. It paves upon the story regarding the spell that casts upon the dead which either leads them to the deep dark or into the boundaries of immortals. Few of the copies also possess the wonderful works of calligraphy and designs.
  • The wonderful output of metaphoric and simple tales is the epic book from Aesop is Fables. It holds tales concluding with simple truths and conveys the spirit of honesty. The stories in life among the hearts of everyone even today. The stories like The Goose that Laid the Golden Eggs, the Hare and the Tortoise are the outputs from this book only.
  • The English literature of Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe is the first literature work to obtain global critical praise.
  • The Spanish novel of Don Quixote by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, an excellent literature work that is accepted all over the world.
Few of the modern times works
  • Anna Karenina by Leo Tolstoy
  • The Brothers Karamazov by Fyodor Dostoyevsky
  • The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck
  • Harper Lees To kill a Mockingbird
  • The poisonwood Bible by Barbara Kingsolver
  • The fellowship of the Ring by J.R.R Tolkien
  • A confederacy of dunes by John Kennedy Toole
  • The mists of Avalon by Marion Zimmer Bradley
  • Dune written by Frank Herbert
  • Gitanjali by Rabindranath Tagore
  • PanchParameshvar by Premchand
  • R K Narayan for his work The Guide
  • Ruskin Bond for his work of A season of Ghosts
Universities at global level
  • University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
  • Harvard University, United States
  • University of Oxford, United Kingdom
  • Yale University, United States
  • University of California, Berkeley, United States
  • Columbia University, United States
  • University of British Columbia, Canada
  • Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
  • National University of Singapore, Singapore
  • Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines
  • University of Melbourne, Australia
  • University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • The University of Tokyo, Japan
  • Peking University, China
  • Lady Shri Ram College for Women, New Delhi
  • St. Stephens College, New Delhi
  • Loyola College, Chennai
  • Christ College, Bangalore
  • St. Xaviers College, Mumbai
  • Presidency College, Kolkata
  • Fergusson College, Pune
  • National P.G. College, Lucknow
  • St. Xaviers College, Ahmedabad
  • Osmania University College for Women, Hyderabad
  • Sacred Heart College, Kochi
International awards on Literature
  • Nobel Prize
  • KONS International Literary Award
  • Franz Kafka Prize
  • International Rubery Book Award
  • Neustadt International Prize for Literature
  • Golden Wreath of Struga Poetry Evenings
  • Man Booker International Prize
  • Astrid Lindgren Memorial Award for the literature on children and youth
  • Common Wealth Award of Distinguished Service
  • Dayton Literary Peace Prize
  • European Union Prize for Literature
  • International IMPAC Dublin Literary Award
  • Jan Michalski Prize for Literature
  • Paris Literary Prize
  • Jnanpith Award
  • SahityaAkademi Award
Popular associations on Literature
  • American Comparative Association
  • British Comparative Association
  • International Comparative Association
  • African Literature Association
  • Australasian Association
  • Modern Language Association
  • American Council of Learned Societies
  • National Association for Literature Development
  • The International Association for Philosophy and Literature
  • International Journal of English and Literature
The word Literature has many things to explore and many things to be taken into consideration. Choosing a style of your own to captivate the reader and presenting your views through your writings also helps to provoke the thoughts of the reader. It is in the hands of literature writers, through their writings, a person can be exposed of truth, facts and also information.




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