Language is a complex knowledge paradigm which guides speakers of the language to express their ideas and to communicate. This wide area of linguistics is defined as a scientific study of this language. Linguistics deals with the nature, structure, phonetics and syntax of a particular language. The term linguistics is coined in 1847 prior to that in 17th century the word philology is coined. This meant to study language through written historical sources. Linguistics term is derived from Latin word which means tongue or language. Linguistics mainly concerned with language usage, real world reference to convey the meaning of the logical structures. Linguistics on a border context deals the regional, political, historical influence on shaping up of language and its linguistic changes. Dialect is a variation of the language usage based on the regional influence. It plays a major role on study of linguistics.
Although linguistics deals with study of language but it relates with number of other fields to gather information like as biology for anatomical reference, anthropology with its reference to humankind, informatics, sociology and speech-language pathology, neuro-sciences to study the language processing in brain .
Linguistics of a language is usually based on:
Phonetics: Phonetics is part of linguistics which isthe study of human sound and speech. Through the physical properties of speech sounds and phones. Their production, auditory reception and acoustic properties. Also depends on wavelength, harmonics and amplitude of a particular speech sound.
Syntax: it is the study of basic principles and fundamental rules for the construction of particular sentence. This varies from language to language. In general known as the grammar of a language. Syntax is interdisciplinary subject with linguistics.
Semiotics: it is a non speech part related to linguistics. Broadly deals with the signs, designations and indications as a part of communication. Sometimes along with speech or devoid of non-linguistic speech.
Morphology: in linguistics it deals with the description, identification and analysis of structure and linguistic units like root word, context, stress and parts of speech.
Linguist In academicals context defined as a person who studies language (or the disciple linguistics) outside the field it refers to a person who speaks many languages fluently similar to polyglot.A linguist deals with multiple academicals to deal with linguistics, some of renowned linguists are:
- Alexandra Yurievna(born 1957) a linguist specialized in linguistic typology and the Arawak language family of Amazonia. She published number of works in Berber and Ndu language. Did extensive research work on language contact, in particular multilingual area of Vaupes river Basin
- Mervyn C. Alleyne(born 1933) a Trinidad born sociolinguistic, dialectologist and creloigst. Best known for his works In Creole studies. Some of his books are Roots of Jamaican culture, Syntaxe historique Creole.
- Leonard bloomfield (1887-1949) an American linguists pioneer in the field of structural linguistics. Made significant contributions to indo- European and Austronesia languages.
- John Russell Bartlett (1805-1886) an American linguist and historian known for his works like the "personal narrative of explorations and incidents in new mexico,sonora, texas, California, Chihuahua and other cities".
- Stefen pit corder(1918-1990) known as pit corder, teaches applied linguistics in university of Edinburgh. Pioneered in study of applied linguistics and error analysis in United Kingdom.
- Jonathan Edwards(1745-1801) an American theologian and linguist, known for his contributions for development of Native American languages.
Languages survive the test of time and survive some dont most of the surviving usage language are not old than 2500 years. Some languages that are extinct and not used such as Latin, demotic, old Aramaic language, sapara language and Aegean languages. And some of the existing old languages are Kannada, Tamil, salvia languages, Sumerian and Greek.