Domain: Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences

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The research on Life & Biological Sciences is a never ending subject. The study of life& Biological sciences encompasses its stretch on various fields of science. It includes scientific study onliving organisms like human beings, microorganisms, animals and plants. It also lays importance on ethical controversies in biology and medical science advancements.It is biology which is always relied upon in as the core of the life sciences and advances in technology on major fields likebiotechnology and molecular biology. This led to the escalation of specializations in various interdisciplinary new fields.
Advantages of Life & Biological Sciences
  • The essential aspect of this science is the quality improvement in life.
  • It offers its applications over health
  • Agriculture
  • Industry of food science
  • Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical industry
Partial list on Life& Biological Science fields
  • Affective neuroscience:
    • This life science field deals with the study of neural mechanisms that are associated with emotions.
    • It includes psychological study on emotions and personality that gets merged with the study on neuroscience.
    • The activities in the brain areas are supposed to be the motivators in our behavior and attention
    • Generally they are related to the Limbic System of the brain. But the recent research suggests that even non-limbic structures also have their consequence in emotion.
    • Several research approaches have been incorporated on Affective neuroscience. It was said that the brain which senses disgust will also end into emotions of disgust when it sees any other person in feelings of disgust, facial expressions of the other person, senses etc.
    • As said before, emotions are the result of various psychological operations in the neural system which ends in producing different patterns in the brain. It is with these different patterns of neural network, the emotions are exposed.
    • Phan, Murphy, Barrett, Kober, Vytal, Lindquist are few of the major researchers who examined the brain patterns to determine its effect on emotions.
  • Anatomy:
    • The science of Anatomy deals with getting through the structure of living things which also includes study on its organs, tissues and systems.
    • It deals with the position of such structures, their compositions, appearance and mutual relationships with other parts.
    • It is categorized into two subject streams, microscopic anatomy and macroscopic anatomy.
    • Example study on microscopic anatomy includes embryology, histology, etc. v. And that of macroscopic anatomy include Angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, endoscopyetc.
    • Anatomy study in animals includes the tissue study, cell compositions, their membranes, different types of tissues and their functionality.
    • In humans, the study extends to observations on the identifying the structures and determining the significant features of those structures.
    • The research on this topic can be rendered through books, study of X rays, skeletons, tutorials, anatomical models and also through dissection of dead bodies.
    • Research can be either by body region or by specific structures like respiratory systems, nervous systems, digestive system etc.
    • Within this field depending on the species, the anatomy is categorized into
      • Fish anatomy
      • Reptile anatomy
      • Amphibian anatomy
      • Mammal anatomy
      • Bird anatomy
      • Invertebrate anatomy
      • Insect anatomy
    • This field thus extends you a bigger platform to study the features and functionality of structures in living things.
  • Astrobiology:
    • This study deals with the research on solar system to determine the habitable places and planets.
    • It uses subjects of biology, molecular biology, physics, planetary science, ecology, geology, chemistry, astronomy and geography to examine life possibility on other planets.
    • It also deals with study of life, its evolution and the scope on earth also.
    • It is of growing importance nowadays and several research works are being conducted by European Space Agency and NASA.
  • Biochemistry:
    • Biologicalchemistry deals with the study of different chemical processes that occur within living organisms.
    • These processes of biochemical reactions form the complexities in governingthe flow of information by biochemical signaling and also the flow of chemical energy that takes place through metabolism.
    • Thecoreemphasis of biochemistry lies in determining how biological molecules pave path to various processes within the cell. That finally led way inn analyzing the whole of the organism.
    • Research study on Biochemistry deals with the biological macro particles like their structure, their interactions and functions.
    • This field has a major importance in detecting the essential nutrients that are lacking and thereby, providing the same to ensure good health conditions.
    • It extends its scope in living conditions of plants also, in determining the condition of fertilizers and also soil that helps in improved cultivation.
  • Biomechanics:
    • Biomechanics goes with the study of structure and also functions of cells and organs in livingorganisms that include humans, plants and animalswith the aid of various methods of mechanics.
    • Few of the commonly used mechanics are Newtonian mechanics, continuum mechanics, materials sciencesetc.
    • Research on biomechanics in usually done in an iterative fashion in implementation of hypothesis and then verifying.
    • The research work on this cadre of sciences presents deeper knowledge of tissue functioning and behavior, that led to advance in tissue engineering.
    • The studies also led to treatment for several pathologies.
    • Muscle responses on external forces and their activity can be known by study of musculoskeletal systems.
    • The major use of Biomechanics lies in orthopedic industry in designing dental parts, fixtures, joints, etc.
  • Biomedicine:
    • The main concern of this study is to determine the capability of human beings in managing the stress from environment.
    • This is the central basis in various medical studies and approaches, mechanisms of molecules and interactions between them, and study on gene therapy, carcinogenesis, HIV virus, and many other areas of interest.
    • The approach in research carries from determining and understanding of interactions between the molecules and the consequences that follow at the end.
  • Biomonitoring:
    • As the name itself suggests, this deals with the monitoring of toxic compounds and elements that are present in the biological particles.
    • This can be measured by means of tests on urine, hair, breast milk, semen, saliva or blood.
    • Generally, this science deals with hypothetical calculations on risk factors when the human being is exposed to the environment of known chemical concentrations.
    • This majorly helps in declaring the concentration of internal substances by analyses on exposure by different ways.
    • These reports help in preparing the assessments of risk in health.
    • Developments in science have also enabled to conclude on particles of very minute concentrations also.
    • Few of the chemicals that are detected by researchers include,
      • Mercury
      • Lead
      • Antimony
      • Arsenic
      • Benzene
      • Cadmium
      • Cobalt
      • Formaldehyde
      • Styrene
      • Toluene
      • Thallium
      • And several other chemicals of minute concentrations
    • Health risks are noticed not by the presence of these chemicals but by the concentration and their toxicity
  • Biophysics:
    • This field of science deals with the implementation of theories and methods of physics in studying the biological systems.
    • The spread of this Biophysics extends in all organizational levels of living things right from molecular to the whole organism.
    • The researchers on thi8s field tend to take their observations in interactions between different components in the cell.
    • They also make a note on regulation of these interactions.
    • The techniques of circular dichroism,NMR spectroscopy, electron microscopy, x-ray crystallography, etc. are commonly used
    • Optical tweezers enable in observing various events at molecular level also that are separated with Nano distances.
    • Biophysicists make the utility of physics to observe and also to manipulate the interactions and structures of discrete molecules or multiplexes of molecules.
    • viii. the evolution of technology has enabled the application of investigational techniques upon tissues and organs.
  • Biopolymer:
    • These are the polymeric structures formed by the living organisms.
    • As the name protests, these the single units of monomers that gets covalently bonded to form polymers.
    • The different classes of this science include
      • The long polymers called polynucleotides which are collection of 13 or more monomers of nucleotide. RNA and DNA are the examples of these polymer structures.
      • short polymers called as polypeptides that can be seen in amino acids
      • And finally, polysaccharides, the linear bonded polymeric structures of carbohydrate.
    • Biopolymers instinctively fold into distinguishing dense shapes that actually determine its biological.
    • The structural forms can be determined by techniques like Edman degradation, Mass spectrometer techniques, gel electrophoresis, and many more.
  • Biotechnology:
    • This field is always of great importance all the time.
    • It makes use of living things and making modifications to improve the quality or make useful products.
    • It has its importance in food production, agriculture, Pharmacogenomics, Genetic testing, Gene therapyand medicine.
    • They use the techniques of breeding in initiating the hybridization.
    • It uses technologies of tissue culture, genetic engineering, gene therapy and few others.
    • It is used to improve the quality outcome of crops, pharmaceuticals and also cattle.
    • It focuses mainly on making the plan, make estimation and then try formulation and development of the high quality products for marketing.
    • Biotechnology has implementations in recycling, treatment of waste and also in production of biological weapons.
    • The sub-fields of Biotechnology includes,
      • Bioinformatics
      • Blue biotechnology
      • Green biotechnology
      • Red biotechnology
      • White biotechnology
    • Human Genome Project is the National Institutes of Health and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) inventiveness that goals in generation of reference sequence of better quality for the human genome and also to identify all of the human genes.
    • Another mechanism of Biotechnology includes Cloning which is placing the nucleus of one cell to another.
    • There are two major types of cloning,
      • Reproductive cloning
      • Therapeutic cloning
  • Cell biology:
    • It is the study of cells, their structure, properties and also the sub units that are present inside the cell, their interactions, and also on life cycle, how they divide and multiply.
    • It extends across mono-cellular organisms like protozoa and also in humans and plants that are multi-cellular.
    • This study presents the essential similarities and dissimilarities of cell in which study of one cell can be inferred and also generalized to other types of cell.
    • iThis feature of cell biology finds its importance in cancer research and development.
  • Cognitive neuroscience:
    • Cognitive neuroscience is the study of various biological substrates that forms the basis for mental processes like memory, attention, decision making, learning, etc.
    • This study on biological processes depicts the functionality of brain in producing those processes.
    • It employs the methods from various fields like psychophysics, behavioral genetics, neuroimagingetc.
    • It concentrates on investigation of how certain actions of mood are supported by the certain areas of brain.
    • Few of the scientists like Mary Whiton Calkins, William James, Wilhelm Wundt and Herman Ebbinghaus have given their major contributions.
    • It uses the brain mapping technology in observation of functions of the brain.
  • Conservation biology:
    • The name itself suggests that it is the study of conservation of biodiversity in protection of their locale and ecosystems from preventing in going extinct.
    • It concerns with the phenomenon of maintenance and restoration of biodiversity.
    • They make a research on demographics, dispersal, inbreeding depression, migration, actual population size and minimum population sustainability of rare species.
    • The researchers are funded to monitor the planet earth in different perspectives and standardize the relation of it with society.
    • Major threats to biodiversity and processes of ecosystem include change in climate, overgrazing, mass agriculture, wildlife trade, deforestation,light pollution,pesticide use,urban development and slash-and-burn agriculture.
  • Developmental biology:
    • This branch of life sciences deal with the growth and development process of the organisms.
    • It also deals with the study of genetic control in cell growth, morphogenesis, and the recent regeneration and aging.
    • They help in getting through the abnormalities in developments which ultimately results in Down syndrome.
    • Research works on Developmental biology of Life sciences fosters in advancements in treatment of various congenital diseases.
  • Ecology:
    • It deals on the relationship of living organisms among themselves and also with the environment.
    • Ecologists generally work upon the issues relating to distribution, diversity, population count of organisms, and also on the struggle between themselves and with ecosystems.
    • Its main role in life sciences include in determining the effects of biodiversity on the functioning of ecological systems.
    • The studies of details of individual species in segregation will not provide the information when clubbed together as unit on the communities of ecology. The ecosystem should be concentrated as a whole single entity to drive in conclusion.
    • The researchers generally work on ecology by organizing it in nested hierarchy spreading from micro scale to macro scale to make it theoretically convenient to carry on their research work.
    • The main complexity of this study is the complexity involved in getting together the individual information which is practically difficult to be manageable by human mind.
    • It concerns with the bridging of the gap between living things and its surroundings with the aid of natural resource management and ecosystem restoration.
  • Environmental science:
    • The name itself suggests that it is the study of environment and the ways of looking into the solutions of various problems that are associated with it.
    • It deals with the understanding of the perceptions and relation with the environment by the human beings.
    • This life science study deals with the research work on vide fields of subjects likegetting through the processes of earth, assessingconventional energy systems, control on pollution and the justification towards it, management of natural resources and also the effects of change in climate.
    • With the issues of environment ranging to become hazardous the research and study of this field has grew in importance to handle the imbalance and find the appropriate measures.
    • National Environmental Policy Act has laid the basic requirements to be investigated in projects to look into consideration of environment protection.
    • Philip Weller, AydarAkhatov and John Hartley Lawton, are few of the listed researchers in life science of Environment.
  • Genetics:
    • It carries study on the genes and hereditary of living organisms.
    • Genetics relates to the inheritance of characteristic features from parents to their offsprings which includes gene behavior, its structure and also function, its distribution, etc.
    • Gene is a part of DNA; the series of nucleotides that forms the gene are transformed into amino acid chains by the cell.
    • It is here, genetic code comes into light.
    • It is the characteristic of genes which governs the size, health conditions and also nutrition of the organism with effect from its origin.
    • General research areas in genetics embrace gene regulation and the connection of genes in the process of development and in cancer.
    • In the field of medicine also, this life science has lot of importance in research to find the variations in gene that causes health issues, searching unknown gene, etc.
  • Immunogenetics:
    • This research branch of Biology & Life sciences stresses on the fact of discovering the association of genetics over the functioning of immune system.
    • Certain diseases like that of type 1 diabetics are found commonly in the offspring which is inherited from its parent.
    • The research study works in recognizing the genes which result in the defects in immunity that paves way in finding target genes helping in healing approaches.
    • Present research studies works on forecasting the progression of disease due to genetic characters and accordingly deal with its treatment on the aid of gene therapy.
  • Microbiology:
    • It is the study of organisms which are microscopicwhich may beacellular, unicellular or multi-cellular.
    • The research of various scientists on this life science contributes to the production of important enzymes like reporter genes.
    • Beijerinck is the first researcher who have discovered virus and also introduced various culture techniques.
    • Research work on microbiology is of lot importance for the use of bacteria in many fields.
    • They are used in producing amino acids for in industrial quantities.
    • Micro-organisms are also I n use for production of biopolymers of application in field of medicine.
    • In in biodegradation of various wastes.
    • They have their contribution in vitamin production, digestion, and destroying pathogens. It is also proven to deal with treatment in cancer.
    • Hence, the researches in microbiology are growing in importance.
  • Neuroscience:
    • This Biological life science is the study on nervous system.
    • Neuroscientists use the technology has been stretched tremendously from studies of single nerve cells to imaging in the brain.
    • The study on neural networks has indeed bought improvements in neuroscience.
    • Research institutes like International Brain Research Organization, Society for Neuroscience, International Society for Neurochemistry, the British Neuroscience Association, have been the centers of working for various researchers.
    • It extends it study on various aspects of nervous system like the structure, its working and development and also of failures, and remedies in bringing change.
    • Apart from research work, the scientists and researchers are in the step forward in making the public aware of nervous systems.
    • International Brain Bee is one such event organized worldwide among the young students.
  • Oncology:
    • The study deals with handling of cancer.
    • The science deals with the identification of cancer and then working towards it to either remove completely or partially.
    • The research on this field is growing enormously from cancer cell biology to treatment by chemotherapy.
  • Parasitology:
    • The life science of parasitology is the education of parasites and their corresponding hosts and also the relationship between them.
    • They conduct various research by breaking down the subject into simpler fragments of problems and deal with using the common techniques.
    • It deals with identifying the parasite on the host, the effects produced by them, and thereby the response reflected by the host.
    • Humans are the homes for several parasites. The research work on methods of identification, and then handling them also take measures of prevention and control.
    • The enormous variety of species in parasitic organisms has laid a challenge for parasitologists who aspire to define and list them.
    • Recently, DNA is also being used in identification of distinct species and then in exploring the association between the groups at various .
  • Pathology:
    • It is the study of dealing with the diseases and finding the solution for its diagnosis.
    • It attempts to answer cause of the disease, mechanisms of progress, essential modifications of cells, and the final consequences faced by the changes.
    • The study of diseases showed up that they are generated by themselves and make the humans affected in distinctive ways.
    • The pathologists are concerned in analyzing the patients affected with disease with the aid of various examinations like resections and biopsies to identity the new disease
    • They need to inspect onunusual diseases and also work with other researchers for the solutions in treatment of diseases.
  • Physiology:
    • The life science study of Physiology deals with understanding of how chemical and physical functions are carried about in the living system by the various organisms, cells, bio-molecules and organ systems.
    • The research work on how the signals are received and transmitted by the nervous systems.
    • George Bartholomew and Knut Schmidt-Nielsen are the renowned figures in the field of Pathology.
    • The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is the most honored award for the contributions in the field of physiology.
  • Population dynamics:
    • The life science study of Population dynamics presents the temporary and lasting changes that can be initiated by the composition of size and age of populations.
    • It also renders the influence of environment and the livingupon the changes.
    • It takes into account the effect of birth and death rates, and also the changes incurred by emigration and immigration habits.
    • It makes use of exponential growth model which portrays that the change of given population always lie in proportion to the existing populace.
  • Proteomics:
    • The study of Proteomics is a life science dealing with study on proteins that takes its structure and functionalities into consideration.
    • Being the main componentfor the metabolism in cells, research on the activity patterns of protein is of high importance.
    • It is generally used in cases of mass spectrometry and purification of protein.
    • The research on Protein is rather difficult as the proteome present in the cell varies uniquely with different cells.
    • This makes it essential to ponder on basic set of proteins also.
    • the learning on proteins and human genes can make it possible for the detection of new drugs that can help in aiding the treatment of disease.
    • As more and more differences in genes are identified among the entities, researchers expect to develop the customized drugs that offer better effectiveness over the individual.
  • Psychology:
    • It focuses on the study of understanding the behavior and mental functions of the individuals and then classifies them accordingly into groups of general principles or research specific cases.
    • Psychologists mainly work with the effort to comprehend the share of mental functions among the individual and also onpublic behavior.
    • Psychology basically takes the information from other fields to elucidatethe phenomena of psychology.
    • Researchers conduct various research activities tomark for additionalinformation into the areas of attention in psychology.
  • Structural biology:
    • The life science study of Structural biology lays importance to the molecular structure of macromolecules, like nucleic acids, proteins, etc.
    • It concerns mainly on how these molecules attain their structures, and later the effect of functionalities that incur because of modifications in their structures.
    • The research on macromolecules is established by making the three-dimensional shapes of the concerned and then carrying out the required research.
    • The basic study is laid importance upon the innate states of macromolecules.
  • Zoology:
    • This life science field of biology relates to the study of animals like their evolution, habits, structure, classification, embryology and also distribution of both existent and also non-existent animals.
    • If involves specialization to get more specific information on animals.
  • Systems biology:
    • Systems biology aims toprototype and determinethe developing properties of cells and tissues which function together as a single system whose abstractexplanation is possible only with the techniques of systems biology.
    • They involve cell signaling networks or metabolic networks.
    • Systems Biology uses interdisciplinary tools to obtain incorporate and then analyze multifaceted data sets from multiple experimental sources.
Global institutes that foster the study of life sciences:
  • Harvard University, United States
  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) , united states
  • University of Cambridge, United Kingdom
  • University of Oxford, United Kingdom
  • University of California, Berkeley (UCB), United States
  • ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), Switzerland
  • The University of Tokyo, Japan
  • University of Toronto, Canada
  • The University of Auckland, New Zealand
  • Seoul National University, South Korea
  • Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
  • Leiden University, Netherlands
  • Taiwan University (NTU), Taiwan
  • Trinity College Dublin, Ireland
  • University of Helsinki, Finland
  • University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • University of Jerusalem, Israel
  • Autónoma de México, Mexico
  • University of Singapore, Singapore
  • The University of Melbourne, Australia
  • Maximilians-University Munchen, Germany
  • University of Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Universidade de São Paulo
  • Peking University, China
  • Sapienza University of Rome, Italy
  • Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), France
  • Chulalongkorn University, Thailand
  • Indian Institute of Science, India
  • Kyoto University, Japan
  • Karolinska Institute, Sweden
  • Stanford University, United States
  • University of Barcelona, Spain
  • University of Cape Town, South Africa
  • Yale University, United States
  • Imperial College London, United Kingdom
Several awards to encourage research works:
  • The Discovery Prize in Life Sciences that aims for the research on cure of intractable diseases.
  • Cogents Life Science Skills Award that fosters to the one who contributes in development of skills within Biology & Life Science sector
  • The Microsoft Life Sciences Innovation Awards for the companies that use latest technologies in enhancing the quality of humans life.
  • Debiopharm Groups Life Sciences Award
  • The Life Science Industry Awards
The fields in Life & Biological sciences rather span across various fields and also on the specific speciation within the mentioned science also. The research activities on these sciences are always on-going and never ending process.


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