Library and information science (LIS) has actually emerged by the integration of two science fields, namely, library science and information science. Originally this Science has been a supplementary professional training programs conducted at school level. But soon it has merged out as one of the discipline in university institutions. This started from the year 1960 that many schools of library sciences have combined the phrase "information science" to their names. University of Pittsburgh, is the first to bring that added Science discipline in the year of 1964. Following this, many other schools also has incorporated the change of name in United States. It is a blend of library science and the set of information science.
This propagated to other parts of the world also like Denmark, wherein the Royal School of Librarianship has been renamed to add the information Science also and emerged as"The Royal School of Library and Information Science".
Association between Library Science and Information Science
In spite of combining the Library and Information sciences together, many disagree to the fact that both are relative fields. In the year 1992, Tefko Saracevic, who is currently a professor and associate dean at Rutgers University has claimed that though both the library science and the information science share common ground in effective utilization of graphical records in solving problems they distinguish each other in various other aspects like:
- The style of description of the problem is specified and selection of those problems.
- In hypothetical questions raised and frameworks recognized
- He portrays differences in the nature of experimentation
- He also mentions that there are variations in the results derived.
- In adaption of various approaches and tools required.
He thus, says that both the Library Science and Information are two different subject fields but not the same.
There is also another indication to assert that both the streams are not alike. It is the indexing in UMIs Dissertations Abstracts. In the year 2009, there were 104 dissertations towards Library Science, 514 towards Information Science and 891 indexed with both the terms. But in November, 2011 it was found that there were 4888 dissertations indexed with Library Science and 9053 with Information Science.
Initially information science used to be just oriented towards documentation but now it has been considered to include subject knowledge, bibliographic databases, scholarly communication, terminologyetc. Information science is generallypursued by scientists. On the other hand, Library sciencefocuses on libraries like on how they are internally processed and depicts the best practices involved. It focuses mainly on educating and training librarians. It does not deal with documentation and scientific communication either. It is with entry of information scientists into library schools in the year 1964, a major step in retrieval of information from subject databases by means of framing queries, search techniques and information propagation has been initiated.
In the year 2010, Julian Warner proposed that role of information and computer science helps in retrieval of information with the aid of query transformationthat fetches the required set of records. And with librarianship and indexing, one can use the selection powerto determine the required selection. Hence, it renders usage of various computer applications to help in library operations
Why is it difficult to define LIS?
The scholars of library and information science try to find the core concepts involved in LIS, but they fail fur to the diversity of the subject. Few people believe that the concepts like computing or networking are the vital aspects in Library and information science. Few others claim that LIS is all about practical set of skills like interviewing and ethnography. There are many claims that rise occasionally that LIS has no proper theory for its own.
Perspective from Library and information science
It has bought about management technology over Resources like in Deployment and Outsourcing of knowledge. With the integration of information science with Library science, LIS also empowers interpretation of various contexts that possess organized information. It makes aware of legal issues and helps in designing efficient library and information services that aids the future generations.
Laws of library and information science
In the year 1931, Dr. Ranganathan, a resident of India who is known as the father of library sciencehas listed five laws of Library Science that portrays the requirements and base of library and information science -
- The first law says that the Libraries are not plainly meant to be the storehouses of various books and knowledge, but it is about the flexibility provided to the people to be able to access them. This makes it clear that not only the conservation of information but also the access to information is an important aspect. And hence the first law is based on providing the required information irrespective of access rights. It also portrays importanceupon the best use of resources, services and facilities provided at the library to enabling the information as an individual wishes to seek.
- The second law highlights on the fact that each individual has different interests but that there will be a book that may be required by everyone. In this aspect there should not be any inequality in providing the access. It is the duty of LIS to be able to guide with the appropriate information based upon the available resourceswithout any underlying barriers. The library in its entirety should include various collections of old and rare material together with the latest material that reflects advancements.The recent books available on advanced discoveries and inventions are kept safe.Theyalso safeall the old books that are required to help the scholars who want to seek information on the history behind.
- The third law showcases the importance in taking the library services to the users for which it should use required appropriate tools that help in broadcasting the service provided by it, the various facilities and the available resources rendered by it. This helps not only in maintaining the existing users in providing the best of its services but also serves as the invite for new users who can come across the opportunities that can be served. It is this law that portrays the purpose of Virtual reference services wherein it gives the information of availability of required book and the catalog of similar books available that can serve the purpose.
- The fourth law showcases importance in preserving the time of the user with proper systematic organization of books. One can come to know of all the available books easily with the help of LIS services and also get information of where he can get it. Hence, it is with the help of LIS that it is required to convert the theoretical knowledge into practice by developing efficient methods for distribution of information that helps in better service to the readers by just accessing them through network over computer.
- The fifth law showcases the importance in the technology evolution. As the technology improves, the knowledge and information aspects that the library should cover also increase. But with the changes cropped, it is also essential in maintenance of already present application services and is equally important to be able to implement the LIS application skills in incorporation of the new changes. With the digitalized world, it is required to digitalize the library equipment also. And the most important aspect of all is to ensure that the library professionals are aware of the changes that have been made and implemented. It is here, that LIS plays a major role in making the library staff literate towards the growing technology helping them to increase knowledge of better efficient services.
- LIS mainly focusesupon development of expert knowledge Skills on various categories like Management, Technology, network and Communication.
- It has turned the Library Professionals into Information Professionals by providing the required subject knowledge that indeed helps the information seeker to seek the help of the Library professionals in getting known of the solution required.
- The emergence of computer technology also has drifted the library from series of phases that no one has ever imagined. It has got a change over from the Traditional Library to Automated, later slowly to Electronic and now finally into the digital Library.
- Another important development is that there has been flexibility been introduced in the library towards the sharing of available resources like library network, etc. that makes it enabled for a number of users be able to access the resource simultaneously without any interruptions.
- The recent trends also helped in the development towards content development to increase the number of contributions over the given available topic and also acquisition of required collection to make it deliverable to all the users who are in seek of it.
- Also, there has been conversion in the education system that led to Web-Based Education. This enables increased access of learning materials through Internet itself being the home for infinite scholarly articles, e-books, etc. Many videos that enable interactive teaching have also been available over web that increases the speed in grasping of information.
- It promoted the launch of knowledge commission that converted the role of libraries into centers of Knowledge gaining. With the abundance of books, it is surely the knowledge capturing location when utilized.
Role of library and information science
- The key role of LIS is to face the challenges as professional compulsion.
- Should ensure the maintenance of balance between the growing technology and the traditional measures.
- Take the key responsibility in knowledge transfer with innovative teaching capabilities
- It should make use of available E-resources in delivering the information.
- It emphasizes on practical application of knowledge rather than theoretical, which helps in better training of core principles.
- It mainly lays stress upon improvisation of library and information services, as it believes thatimprovisation is essential nourishment for economic development and overall quality.
- It plays a major role in preparing one for various career aspects like librarian, cataloguer, information architect, web master, etc.
Encouragements towards library and information science
- Nowadays, many universities have incorporated the Library and Information Science as one of the course stream enabling many students to graduate on it.
- Many research facilities and support are being rendered on it.
- There were also provisionsforvariousopportunities to be able to apply all there practical knowledge into current management.
- There are many exciting professional offers in both the public and private sectors like engineering, government posts, media and communications, business, libraries, law, medicine, publishing, archives and museums, academics, etc.
- Several books have been published which covers various important research issues in the field of LIS.
Information science and library science are always in symbiosis with each other. These streams deal with specific organizations and the retrieval of information about various aspects
Library science and information science
The interdisciplinary part of the social science is the erudite library science. It incorporates various verticals like law, humanities, applied science, chemistry, topics related to grouping of libraries, how top organize the library. The dissemination of the resources like journals, books etc. also is crucial part of maintenance. Archival science recently is also grouped under library science, though there is a wide conceptual variation between library science and archival science.The diverse topics that come under the knowledge of library science are below:
- The strategy of organization of the resources to help the selected group of users.
- The interaction between people and classified systems.
- The interaction between technology and people using it.
- The percentage of acquisition of information.
- Evaluation of the acquired information.
- The various training programs and education categories for careers in the fields of libraries
- Learning the ethics that come under the structure of library science.
- Legal knowledge about library and information science.
- The knowledge of computer technology, document management etc.
- The newly emerging requirements like, information management, database management, knowledge management and architecture of information are constantly increasing.
Various types of libraries and the librarians are:
Public Library: The librarian covers topics like, cataloging, information literacy, collection of information, standards in the community and public relationships, serving the various societies and groups of people, legal issues, budget issues, censorship etc.
School specialist: He provides library services for the school children. He covers both the high school and secondary schools. In few places, the local government appoints an educated and certified librarian. He ahs to qualify the set of standardized procedures. This local criterion can also be meant to the school trenchers. The librarianship in school can include topics ranging from intellectual freedom, building a proper timetable/ curriculum regarding the teaching staff of the school, information literacy, pedagogy etc.
Academic library: He serves the librarian purpose for the universities and corporate colleges. High important issues are taken care by the librarian like the copyright issues, technical issues, digital library or repositories, freedom in the academic curriculum, rightful access to the articles or scholarly papers, reference works etc. few of the librarians are part of the faculty or specifically focus on library tasks. Where as the other hold the rank of head of the departments or professors of the universities. To become an academic librarian, a Masters is required. Masters in Library Studies and Masters of Arts in Library and information science are few degrees. Few academic library jobs ask for a specific qualification like educational technology.
Archives: This includes trained archivists. It needs a proper knowledge about archiving of important information, records, historical notes and many more. It is meant for preservation of knowledge that has historical importance. Few aspects that come under this are mass decalcification, preserving materials, catalogs, appraisal and access to the historical works. Most of the trained historians take up this specialized job.
Special library: Mostly people who worked in medical libraries in hospitals, schools, agencies, special purposes organizations, government organizations, and corporate houses come under this category. They deal with issues concerning only their respective industry.
Preservation: These librarians work in management libraries. They perform activities like, preserving information, maintenance of books, saving manuscripts, materials thatneed to be archived, preserving digital information and reformatting the analog data.
Information science is also known as study about information. It deals with grouping, collection, storage, classification, dissemination and retrieval of data. It is also the study about the application and the tactics of using the information in the organization. Interaction among various groups of people, firms and systems also come under information science. It is not a sub category of informatics or computers, but it is closely learnt along with social sciences.
Information science has innumerous areas of development and investigation:
- Access of information deals with security, knowledge, computers, technology and library. Translation, categorization and text mining are few sub categories in this. As the name reflects, Information access also concerns about the copyright laws, public licenses and patent of the sources of information.
- Architecture of information is an art. The main aim of information architecture is usability. Organizing of the websites, communities online, intranets, and labeling are the main concerns. It follows the principles involved in design and architecture of the data. Management of information is about distribution and management of information between various sources.
- Retrieval of information from respected areas
- Seeking information is the way of seeking information from various contexts.
- Information society, which is the base for creation and manipulation of the information.
- Reasoning and knowledge representation is about artificial intelligence. The information that is passed through codes, symbols and other new means. The proper strategy and knowledge of using respective symbols to deliver the apt information briefly comes under knowledge representation.
Various career options in Information science are:
It is with this emergence of LIS, that the normal library professionals have turned out to become the informational professionals. As the change has been bought internationally, it compelled the other developing countries also to implement the changes. It has the ability in making one to solve problems qualitatively. Laying much importance in quality, LIS is still in journey to ensure the continuous improvement in assurance of quality. This showcases on how the collaboration of two sections, Information Science and Library Science have achieved the upgraded efficiency with effective information deliverance.