The word engineering and technology is the study of tools and techniques. It therefore includes the art, craft, business, applied sciences and possibly knowledge. Technology is often a magnitude of science and engineering - although technology as a humanoid movement precedes the two fields i.e. scientists and engineers. Both these fields can be considered technologists. These three fields are often considered as one for the purpose of research and reference. This close relationship between science and technology contributes decisively to the increasing specialization of scientific branches.
Areas of study in engineering & technology
In general, engineers are trying to test whether their designs achieve their objectives prior to mass production. To do this many things are used among other things like prototypes, scale models, simulations, destructive tests and strength tests. Testing ensures that the devices work as intended. Engineers must take their professional responsibility very seriously to produce designs that are developed as planned and not to cause unexpected damage to people in general. Typically, engineers include a safety factor in their designs to reduce the risk of unexpected failures.
The science attempts to explain the recent, unexplained phenomena, creating mathematical models that correspond to the experimental results. Engineering and technology are the applications of knowledge gained through science by producing practical results. However, there may be points of contact between science and engineering.
The history of engineering & technology
The history of engineering and technology is nearly as old as the history of mankind. It follows the concepts since the humans began using tools for hunting and protection. The history of engineering and technology has consequently built the chronology of the use of natural resources to be created. All the tools needed foe living, the uses of a natural fit are few aspects where technology comes in. The history of engineering and technology follows a progression of simple tools and energy sources which range from simple to complex tools and sources of energy. Few of them are as follows:
- The discovery and subsequent use of fire was a key point in the technological evolution of man. It has been allowing a better utilization of food and the use of natural resources which need the heat to be useful. The wood and charcoal are among the first materials used as fuel. The wood, clay and rock (such as limestone ) were among the earliest materials to be handled by the fire to make weapons, pottery, bricks, cement and other materials. The improvement continued with the furnace which allowed the ability to forge the melt and metal (such as copper, 8000 BC. ) and possibly the discovery of alloys such as brass (4000 BC ).
- The tools range from sophisticated machines simple as lever ( 300 BC ), screw ( 400 BC ) and the pulley until the complex machinery such as computer, the devices of telecommunications , the electric motor, a jet engine among many others. The tools and machines usage increased in complexity in proportion to the scientific knowledge expands.
At the beginning of XXI century, engineering among different fields has made exploring the planets of the solar system with a high degree of detail. It has highlighted the explorers by introducing to the planetary surface. It has also created a team capable of defeating the world champion of chess. Technology has successfully communicated to the planet in fractions of a second. It has even helped to generate internet and the ability of a person to connect to this network from anywhere on the planets surface using a computer laptop and satellite phone.Engineering & technology has supported and enabled countless advances in medical science, astronomy, chemistry and many others.Elisa Zamfirescu Leonida (1887-1973) was the first woman engineer in the world. In 1909 he enrolled in the Royal Academy TU Berlin, Charlottemburgen and graduated in 1912.
Pioneers in engineering & technology
The pioneer names in engineering and technology are Neil Alden Armstrong, Leonid Brezhnev , Alexander Calder , etc.
Globally, within the engineering & technology to designate that can operate a number of directions:
- Organization (planning and management, such as project development and property management )
- Construction (design and calculation of building structures)
- Engineering (designing technical details)
- Implementation technology (the construction of a building: contractor / performer )
- Architecture (the design of works)
- Building physics (calculating the physical aspects of the built environment)
- Urbanism (Research desirable and possible developments for existing and newly set up areas)
- Restoration (restoration, renovation and reallocate existing building possibly with monumental status)
- Maintenance (keeping in good condition of all that built and curdled is for residential or other uses)
The research and discoveries in engineering and technology
- Most innovations in engineering and technology tend to be primarily used in engineering and technology, in medicine , in computer science and military branch. Thus, the domestic audience ends up being the last to benefit from high-tech. Since complex tools require a complex manufacturing, this scenario dramatically increases the price of the final product.
- In the emergence of environmental issues, technology played an important role. Nature is increasingly seen as a material for human action. Partly due to the rise of science and technology Nature is reduced to a source of energy and resources for modern large-scale engineering and industry. Using technology, the resources of the earth are invoked and exhausted.
- In more modern times engineering and technology managed to give the man in this world many things around them. It has becomes a means to interact with others. How engineering and technology will develop further, is difficult to predict - difficult as the term people are looking at is longer.
- Engineers use the knowledge of the science , the math and the appropriate experience to find the best solutions to specific problems. Creating applicable mathematical models of the problems that allow them to rigorously analyze and test potential solutions is the best way to proceed.
- Technical design is almost always finding the optimum between conflicting demands and conditions. In addition, the aspects like size, shape, weight, price, durability, ease of maintenance, appearance (model), local customs, availability of prefabricated parts, usability, safety, environmental requirements, transportability, production problems and available design time are very important. If an entirely new product is designed, there must have been several ways which are being tried and abandoned. Each seeking a solution.
- Technology and tools have been developed in concert. Equipment has been developed to meet the need for technology. Technologies have advanced the advent of new tools. Further scientific discovery due to the fact that applications of scienceis deepening the development of theory ( science and technology is). A revolutionary invention has to be made. It will be reached by varying the larger global environment.
- Reverse engineering technology is being the output from a finished product to produce detailed drawings and specifications on how the products work. The word is therefore intended that the operation is inverted and compared to how an engineer usually works.A known example is the Compaq "reverse engineering" of IBM s BIOS ROM , enabling the manufacture of compatible PCs from other manufacturers. The ensuing competition drove down prices and probably accelerated computerization of businesses and homes significantly.Some countries have laws that prohibit reverse engineering on the grounds that it could harm companies who have their secrets revealed. There has been vigorous debate about whether these laws protect manufacturer confidentiality, outweighs the concomitant reduction of competition and deteriorating consumer rights.
Negative aspects of engineering and technology
One negative aspect that has generated engineering is the environmental impact that many processes, products emanating from these disciplines that have generated, the duty and task of engineering contribute to solving the problem.
Engineering and technology affects the man as well as other significant species ways, ability to control and adapt to their natural environment. The discovery prehistoric to the ability to control fire greatly increased the availability of food resources and the invention of the wheel that helped humans in traveling in and controlling their environment.
Engineering and technology have affected society and its surroundings in a number of areas. In many societies, technology has helped in the development of advanced economic models (including todays global economy) and has allowed the emergence of leisure. Many processes produce unwanted effects, such as pollution , depletion of natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and the environment. Many technological developments influence the values of society and technological developments provoke consideration of new questions about ethics. The main function of engineering & technology is to make designs or develop solutions. Engineering and technology is social, industrial or economic. For this, the engineer must identify and understand the most important obstacles in order to make a good design.
List of universities of engineering and technology
- California institute of technology
- Princeton University
- Stanford University
- Eth-zuumlrich swiss federal institute of technology zuumlrich
- University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign
- University of Texas at Austin