Computer Science and Information Technology is the vertical of science that studies the techniques, methodologies and computational tools that automates processes and develops solutions based on the use of the digital processing. It is not restricted to the study of algorithms. Its applications and implementation are in the form of software, knowledge about the computer hardware and many more.
Thus, the Computer Science and IT also covers modeling techniques, data communication protocols and principles covering other specialties of technology.
The studies from this field can be applied in any area of human knowledge. It is defining methods for solving problems based on repetitions previously observed. Recent advances in this field have strongly impacted contemporary society. Applications relating to the areas of computer networks, Internet, Web and mobile computing have been used by billions of people around the globe.
used for the first time in France by Philippe Dreyfus , former director of the National Computing Centre of Bull. It is used for his company called Applied Informatics Society (AIS). This neologism is formed by the combination of the word ""information"" reduced to ""inform"" and the term ""automatic"" reduced to ""automatic"".
In that month, Walter F. Bauer opened American society Informatics Inc., Hebrands his name and that custom this word to describe the new discipline. This forced them to fall back on computer science and IT.The Association for Computing Machinery is the largest association of computer scientists in the world. When approached Informatics Inc. for anapprovalto use the word informatics and to replace the term computer machinery, the company declined the offer. The company Informatics Inc., acquired by Sterling Software [ref. needed] , ceased operations in 1986.
In 1966, in France the official use of the word is established by the French Academy to describe the ""science of information processing,"" and has widely adopted in front of the press, industry and academia.
In July 1968 , the federal Minister of Scientific Research of Germany , Gerhard Stoltenberg , pronounces the word Informatik during an official speech. He found it a need to teach this new discipline in the universities of the country. The same term is used for appoint some courses at German universities. The word informatica then makes its appearance in Italy and Spain. Later informatics is used in the UK.
The pioneer names in science of computers are Gene Amdahl ,Andrew Appel ,Bruce Arden ,Sanjeev Arora ,John Vincent Atanasoff ,Ali Aydar ,etc.
The research and developments
- Before the 1920s , computer was a term associated with people who carried out calculations, usually led by physicists. Thousands of computers were used in projects in trade, government and research sites. After the 1920s, the expression computing machine began to be used to refer to any machine that performs the work of a professional. Especially those in accordance with the methods of the Church-Turing Thesis .
- Alan Turing acknowledged as the father of computer science IT, devised the Turing machine which later developed into the modern computer.
- The mathematical fundamentals of modern computers instigated to be distinct by Kurt Gödel with his incompleteness theorem (1931 ). This theory shows that there are limits to what can be proved or disproved in a formal system. This led to subsequent work by Gödel and other theorists to define and describe such formal systems, including concepts such as recursion and lambda calculus .
- In 1936 Alan Turing and Alonzo Church independently introduced the formalization of an algorithm. The algorithm defines the limits of a computer and a purely mechanical model for computation. These topics are covered in Church-Turing Thesis , a hypothesis about the nature of mechanical calculation. This thesis positions that any probable calculation can be accomplished by an algorithm running on a computer, since there is time and enough storage for it.
- During thesis also included a description of the Turing machine that has a tape of infinite length and one head for reading and writing that moves the tape. Due to its infinite character, such a machine cannot be built. But this model can simulate the computation of any algorithm running on a modern computer. Turing is quite important in computer science and IT, that his name is used for the Turing Award and the Turing test . He contributed to the breaks code of Britain in the Second World War and later continued to design computers and computer programs till 1940. He committed suicide in 1954.
- Until the 1930s, electrical engineers were able to build electronic circuits to solve mathematical and logical problems. But most of the people performed the task in private and without any process. This changed with the masters thesis of Claude Shannon , 1937, A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits. While taking classes in Philosophy, Shannon was exposed to the work of George Boole and realized that he could apply this learning in electro-mechanical assemblies to solve problems. Shannon developed information theory in the article of 1948, The Mathematical Theory of Communication, whose content serves as a foundation to study areas such as data compression and encryption .
- Despite its short history as an academic discipline, computer science and IT has led to several fundamental contributions to science and to society. This science was responsible for the formal definition of computation and computability and proof of the existence of unsolvable problems or computationally intractable.
It was also possible to build and formalize the concept of computer language. Programming language is a tool for the precise expression of methodological information. It is flexible enough to be represented at different levels of abstraction.
To other scientific fields in general, computers has provided support for the Digital Revolution giving rise to the Information Age . The scientific computing is an area of computing that enables the advancement of studies such as genome mapping human (see Human Genome Project ).
There are several alternative definitions for computer science and IT. This can be seen as a form of science, mathematics or a new discipline that cannot be categorized according to current models.
The computer science and IT often intersects with other research areas such as physical and linguistic. But the mathematics subject is considered to have a higher degree of relationship. This is proved by the information that, the early work in the area was heavily influenced by mathematicians such as Kurt Gödel and Alan Turing. At present there is still a useful exchange of ideas between the two fields in areas like mathematical logic, the theory of categories , the domain theory , the algebra and geometry.
Another point to note is, despite its name it involves the study of rarely known machines like computers. In fact, the renowned scientist Edsger Dijkstra is widely cited by the phrase "The computer science and IT is so little related to computers as astronomy is related to telescopes."
Because of this, it is proposed to seek a defined name for this emerging science. The aim is to avoid the relationship with computers.
A first proposal was Peter Naur , who coined the term datologĂ¬a to reflect the fact that, the new discipline was concerned mainly about the processing of data. It is regardless of the tools of such treatment were mathematicians computers or devices. The first scientific institution to adopt the denomination was the Department of Datologi¬a of the University of Copenhagen , founded in 1969. The first professor is Peter Naur of datologi¬a. This term is used mainly in the Scandinavian countries . Also, in the early days, a number of terms were associated with computing practitioners.
The design and development of computers and computer systems is generally considered as a field claimed by disciplines outside computer science and IT. There is close communication of ideas between the various computer-related disciplines.
Finally, the general public sometimes confuses computer science and IT with vocational areas that work with computers or think it is about your own experience with computers. It often includes activities such as games, web browsing and processing text.
Other interfaces of science of computers with other disciplines are in the fields of information business , medical computer science and IT, computers science nursing, agricultural computer science , sports computer science as well as new interdisciplinary directions such as neuromorphic engineering . The collaboration with mathematics or electrical engineering is not because of the relationship as an interdisciplinary means. With the computer education especially in schools the development and knowledge is on the go.