Domain: Arts and Social Sciences

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SubDisciplines covered

Art Production
Arts Administration
Arts and Crafts
Communications & Media
Conceptual Art
Decorative Art
Drawing and Painting
Fashion Design
Graphic Design
Industrial Design
Interaction Design
Interior Design
Theatre & Cinema

The arts or art is an approach of creative, productive and intellectual expression of sensibility.It is a spectrum of collective endeavors. This can be classified as a free time group activity, commercial purpose, a rich tradition or for personal quest. Whereas entertainment can be elucidated as an activity form which engages the attention of audience(it can be of visual, auditory, gustatory or olfactory) a pleasure seeking activity which hold and influences their opinions on other walks of life. The philosophy of arts and entertainment belong to the diversity of spectrum inaesthetics.

Art, the vertical has innumerous range of categories. These activities are creative interpretations. Art is a blend of creative expression of an object. Mimesis, depiction of emotions, values and perfect expressions are its core features. The definition of art has been changing since ages with the changing imagination skills and technical output.
The arts can be broadly classified as two distinct forms:
  • Visual arts is all about making of objects and images. The artistic forms like painting, photography, sculpture, pot painting, print making, designing come under visual arts. Now a day, architecture is also categorized under visual arts. Similar to the decorative arts, visual arts also involve music, filming, dancing, acting and performance arts.
  • Literary arts are also a creative field which uses words and expressions to depict the story. Creative writing, fiction, drama stories, depicting emotions and poetry are few examples.Literature also comes under visual arts. One needs to have the basic knowledge about writing, speaking, and listening. It requires a proper language base and good communication skills to deliver a cognitive content. The insight about the human history can be identified through literary arts.
Entertainment is a means to grasp the attention of the viewers. It is a pleasing delight. The main part of the entertainment is the audience who appreciate it. It is a kind of private activity or a public recreation. Both the audience and the performers have a role. Public entertainment includes theaters, public shows and concerts. The purpose of entertainment is fun and recreational learning. Few insane entertainments like public punishment are banned by the government.
Whereas entertainment holds an umbrella of various class:
  • Dance and music
  • Theatre, Cinema and film
  • Games and sports
  • Reading, travelling.
To be more precise visual arts is primarily an expression for visual delight. Which includes painting, drawing, sculptures, performing arts,photography, film making, etc.literary arts or creative writing are interchangeable phases for similar pursuit. The emphasis is given to the narrative style, plot development. Poems, short stories, epics, novels belong to this genera. Usually the theme is of an imaginative or factual.

The association of art and entertainment with mankind is as old as history itself.Through annuls of human history, the spatial relationship is evident.
  • In the prehistoric periods the act of drumming, chanting, face painting have been the bridge for the alter state of awareness is pristine. The classification of arts and entertainment is absurd in this period due to lacking of written language and record keeping.The workmanship of prehistoric men is evident in the figurines, beads and cave paintings.
    • Venus of Willendorf, the figurine found in Austria is estimated to be around 24000 to 22000 B.C.
    • The petro glyph of the Indus valley civilization present in Bhimbetka rock shelters is from 5500 B.C.
    • Stonehenge, Wiltshire England which is built around 3000 to 2000 B.C.
  • The ages of ancient period started with discovery of writing as a tool for expression and invention of papyrus. Art in the ancient period varied from civilization to civilization. The primitive form of writing was developed in the civilizations of Egypt, Persian, Mesopotamian, Sumerian, Babylonian and china.
    • The Egyptian civilization on the banks of river Nile. Has the most unique and uninfluenced art form, with clear lines and simple shapes with usage of colors and symbols information is depicted. The influence of religion and divinity is unmistakable.
    • Greek art influenced both the west and east alike sculptures and architecture is their field of specialization. The Greek art school highly influenced the Ghandhari form of art in India. The Greco- Buddhist art is the legacy of its influence.
    • Islamic art evolved in 7th century,it is not confounded to a single medium it consist of calligraphy, painting, glass, ceramic.
  • Medieval art form is a confluence of biblical scripts and the institution of church.
    • Byzantine art flourished around 4th to 17th B.C. It is a continuum of the Roman Empire hence heavily influenced by it. Byzantine art with Constantinople as its capital favored the symbolic representation, a most famous surviving byzantine art andthe Hagiasopia mosaic of Christ from 12th century.
    • Gothic art style is developed in Francearound 12th century. The primary art medium is illustrated through scripts, fiasco, stained and panel painting unlike its previous art forms, gothic is known for its lightness and soaring spaces. Some of the fine examples are the enchanting Rheinstein castle Germany, St. Stephens cathedrals of Vienne built in 14th century.
  • The renaissance period covered the period 14th century to 17th century. It is considered as the bridge between the medieval and modern art. Some of the great works of history are created in this period. Italy being the heart of renaissance some of the magnificent artistic works and artists were born in this period.
    • Intellectual perspective of art has changed through Europe. New discoveries and rebirth of various fine arts like music, painting, literature, architecture, spirituality, religion and philosophy has taken place.
    • Raphael (1483-1520), Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) and Leonardo da vinci (1452-1519) are some of the most prominent contributors of this period. This period saw art in a more realistic perspective. Thelast super by Da Vinci, birth of Venus bySandro Botticelli (1445-1510), the sculpture of David by Michelangelo, the bronze sculpture of Judith and Holofernes by Donatello (1386-1466) are few to name.
    • The initiation of technology had sparked in these period-Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543) astronomical revelations, Galileo Galile (1564-1642) telescope, Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) laws of planetary motion and Isaac Newton (1642-1727) fundamentals of gravitation. Rather than a period of scientific evolution it is a period for stepping stone for a scientific period.
    • Literature too evolved through renaissance, the works of William Shakespeare(1564-1616) hamlet, Othello,Macbeth made a lasting impression. The controversial work of Thomas more (1478-1535) utopia.
    • Contemporary art or modern art which is defined in general as the 20th century revolutionconsists of wide varieties of movements. Cubism is an abstract art form where the art expresses in multiple points of view and expressionism is a subjective perceptive of emotional expression.
On the other hand entertainment along with arts holds a prominent part in human history. This can be a private activity for leisure and recreation or a congregational Endeavour. In particular performing arts have always been a favorite.
Various categories in Arts and Entertainment
Performers usually include dancers, actors, musicians, singers. Each has a definitive role. These performers have to adapt to the role they depict through makeup and costumes. Various categories are:
It is a rhythmic movement of body, expressed through gestures and body language. There are different styles of dancing some are:
  • Ball room dance is a social dancing with partner tango mambo, salsa, and waltz are some of this types.
  • Ballet originated in Italian renaissance and developed into court dance, highly technical and choreographed dance form.
  • Dragon dance is a traditional Chinese dance form where an inanimate objects here the dragon is brought to life with skillful rhythmic movements.
  • Maypole dance is a folk dance originated in Europe to celebrate the festive season of spring, where dancers perform a circular dance around the pole.
  • Tap dance is a dance form in which the dancer wears a characteristic dance shoes with metal bases. This metal base helped him to produce rhythmic tapping sounds similar to the drum beat. Tap dancing have its roots from Juda dance and the most popular Irish step dancing considered to originated in the mid 1800s.some of the notable tap dancers are Steve Condos (1918-1990), an American tap dancer and member of the Condos brothers. Sammy Davis Jr. (1925-1990) an Afro-American entertainer, Jimmy Slyde (1927-2008) was known as the king of slides. Born James Titus Godbolt is famous for his innovative tap steps.
  • Belly dance is a western coined name for the oriental dance form-RaqsSharqi.It is a dance where prominent movements are abdomen and hips. These movements are usually done by women. Some of the notable dancers areFifiAbdou (1953) born Atiyat Abdul Fattah Ibrahim Cairo, Egypt also known as the queen of the oriental dance. Serena Wilson (1933-2007) is a well-known dancer and choreographer who popularized belly dance in America. AriellahAflalo, a Moroccan ancestry contemporary belly dancer born in America.
It consists of acting out parts of stories through gestures, dialogues, songs, or speeches. Theater entertainment is a popular form of amusement and entertainment for the rich in the Victorian era.
  • Musicals are stage performances where prominence is given to music and its humorous expression. The finest example the musical version of Pygmalion, my fair lady by Bernard Shaw.
  • Play is a script of dialogues written by script writer intended for theatrical performance rather than reading. The genre includes comedy tragedy satirical. Some of the greatest dramatists and play writers are William Sheakspere,George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950), James Joyce (1882-1941).
  • Opera is a combination of music and dialogues with proper musical notes. Some of the notable operas are the magic flute composed by Mozart (1756-1791), La Traviata composed by Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901).
It is an art form through the medium through dynamics of sound with pitch, tempo and articulation of importance.
  • Orchestral music is a collection of prodigious of number of musicians. Who are conducted and organized in unison by the music conductor Originated in early 17th century.
  • Blues and jazz, both have its root from African music. They developed in the 19th century.
  • Carnatic music is a predominant south Indian style, evolved from the ancient Hindu Vedas. Basic elements aresruthi (musical pitch) raga (the melody formula) and tallam(rhythmic cycles).
  • Sufi music is inspired by the works of Sufi saints, like hafiz, Rumi. Qawwaliis awell-known popular form of Sufi music predominant in Asia mainly Pakistan and India.
Some of the well known awards in the field of music are:
  • Grammy award:
     previously known as the gramophone awards. First award ceremony was held in 1959 in U.S.A. the categories under which the awards are given specify specific contribution to the music industry.Few of the awards are:
    • Record of the year
    • Album of the year
    • Song of the year
    • The Best new artist award
    • Individual award and various other awards for genre of music.
    Some of the notable receivers of the award are:
    • Alison krauss (1971) an American child prodigy who made her first solo album at 14 years. She has a total of 27 Grammy awards in 41 nominations. Some of her soundtracks include goodbye is all we have, forget about this, so long so wrong.
    • Georg Solti (1912-1997) a Hungary born orchestral conductor. Won 32 Grammy awards listed as the highest number of Grammy receivers whether classic or contemporary.
    • Stevland Hardaway Morris (1950) an American musician and singer known by his stage name Stevie wonder. Some of his singles are just called to say I love youandyou are the sunshine of my life. He won total of 22 Grammy awards and a life achievement award in 1996.
  • Brit awards :
     (1977) are British phonographic industry annul pop music awards in London. The 1977 Brit award was given to the Beatles band.
  • Golden badge awards:
     (1947) given by the British academy of songwriters, composers and authors (BASCA).
Cinema and motion picture
It is a major form of leisure activity, although not all films aremeant for recreation purpose. Animation involves a series of continuous running of art work. Movies like the oldest surviving animated German movie the adventures of prince Ahemad (1926). The first motion picture isRoundhay garden scene(1888) directed by Louis le prince is of approximately 2 minutes. Some of the prestigious awards and film festivals are:
  • Cannes film festival: an annual film festivalstarted from 1955 held in south France. Its most important award is Plame dOr (golden plam).
  • Berlin international film festival (1951) also called as the Berlin ale. Held in Berlin, Germany. From the early months of 1978 it is celebrated annually. Golden and silver bears are awarded for which around 20 films compete.
  • Venice film festival (1932) is the oldest film festival in the world. Founded by court Giuesppevolpi(1877-1947) evey year it is held in Lido, Italy. The principle awards of this festival are the Leone dOre (golden lion) for the best film, Leone dargentro (the silver lion) for best director and the CoppaVolpi (Volpi cop) for best actors and actresses.
  • Golden globe award: which is bestowed for the excellence in the field of motion picture and television, started in 1944,los Angles.
  • Academy awards: the Oscars as it is known, the epitome of cinematic achievements started in 1929, los angles. A total of 24 categories the awards are distributed.
Soap operas and television drams
They are also known simply as soaps and serials. The birth of this category of entertainment was during 1930 named as soaps because of the fact that most of the drams are sponsored and produced by soap manufactures. Whos main target where for female audience. The plot and the story is usually based on the relationships of a set of characters, and there every day life.
Some of the popular soaps and TV drams are:
  • The Simpsons (1989) the longest and still running TV shows in the world. A comical parody on the life of average American family.
  • The big bang theory (2007) a comical TV show series shows the life of four nerdy physicists and a waitress who lives across their flat.
  • Friends (1994-2004): story revolves around the life and turbulences of six friends.
  • Cheers (1982-1993): ranked in 18th position of 50 greatest tv shows of all time.
Some of the famous awards given to soaps and drams are:
  • Emmy awards (1949):
     similar to the Grammy award it recognizes the excellence in the field of television industry. Presented by ATAS (academy of television arts and sciences), los angles. Some of the notable receivers are the cheers (1983, 1984 and 1987),everybody loves Raymond (2003, 2005).
  • 7 dOr or the golden seven (1985):
     is a French television award presented by Tele 7 jours. It is a weekly French magazine .The first ceremony took place in Le lido, Paris.
  • Indian telly award (2001):
     it is an annual award of excellence for on-screen and off-screen presented by the Indian television .com, Mumbai.
Games and sports
Games and sports are part of entertainment and leisure activities man from the very start. Games and sports in particular can be relaxing and also can be a form of physical exercise. They can be played at an amateur or professional level. The players can be varying from single to multiple players.
Games can be classifies as
  • Indoor games: card games, board games and tabletop games like billboard.
  • Outdoor games: unlike indoor games outdoor games are exciting and need physical interaction, lawn games, clay court games, riding.
Most of the games and sports are played with a set of rules and sports equipment, skill, strategy and chance.
Multi-sport events are popular all over the world some of them are:
  • Olympics: held for every 4 years, a popular sport gathering of more than 200 countries. The present day Olympics are inspired from the ancient games held Olympus, Greece held in 8th century. Olympic Games are monitored by the international Olympic committee (IOC). The first modern Olympics are held 1896.the different events in Olympics for 2016 are 28. Some of the highest Olympic medal winners are:
    • Michael Phelps (1985) an American swimmer has the highest count of Olympic medals of 22, retired from Olympics from 2012.
    • LarisaLatynina (1934) was a former Soviet Union gymnast. With an Olympic medal count as 18.
    • PaavoNurmi (1897-1973) a Finland athletic with a total of 12 medals in Olympics.
  • Common wealth games: similar to the Olympics is a multi event games meant for the common wealth nations started from 1930. Previously known as British Empire games the games are held for the first time in Hamilton province in Ontario, Canada. The events of common wealth are numbered as 31.
  • Asian games: are the pan continental games also known as Asiad. Held for the first time in 1951 New Delhi, the number of sports is 44.
  • Military world games (1995) organized by the international military sports council (CISM) held for the first time in Italy, Rome.
Reading has always been a leisure activity to indulge oneself. the reading activities varies as friction and non friction in the friction genre romance, contemporary, supernatural and paranormal, thriller and suspense, murder mystery, crime and military friction comes where as non friction auto biographies, semi auto biographies, travel memoires, current issues , collections of essays comes . Every year number of book fairs and literary festivals are conducted:
  • National book festival (2001):
      an American event conducted by the library of congress every year started by former first lady Laura bush.
  • DSC Jaipur literature festival (2006):
      is an Asias largest book fair event held in the Diggi palace hotel, Jaipur Rajasthan.
  • Asian house festival of literature is the only book festival which honors Asiatic literature in U.K. The first festival was held in the Asia house, London in 2007
  • Hong Kong international literary festival started in 2000,by writer Nuryvittachiand creative writing teacher Jane Camens. The first festival was held in 2001 and preceded annually.
The awards related to the literature field are:
  • Nobel Prize for literature (1901) presented by the Swedish academy. Some of the notable recipients are Indian poet Rabindranath Tagore(1913) for his work "Geetanjali", English writer Rudyard Kipling (1907), Sully Prudhomme of France in the year 1901.
  • Man booker international award(2005)given for every two years, complements the man booker prize (1968). The 2005 winner is an Albanian writer Ismail Kadare (1936).
  • Neustadt international prize (1970) is a biennial award presented by the Oklahoma state university it is often compared to noble prize in literature and known as American noble prize. The inaugural award is given to GiueppeUngaretti (1888-1970) an Italian poet and modernist writer journalist and critic.
  • BalintBalassi memorial sword award (1997)a European literature award presented in Budapest. This award is given to outstanding Hungarian poets and translators of Hungarian literature. The award is a namesake for the Hungarian poet BalintBalassi (1554-1594).
The effects of electronic media in the development of arts and entertainment
  • Electronic media helped in Globalization. Mass audiences all around the world came face to face with the art. People can watch, listen and take part in various forms like dance, theater and art. The improvement in the data storage also is a positive hedge in the development of arts.
  • The replacement of storage and recording strategies has led to obsolescence. The rise of internet entertainment is also a great support for the traditional entertainment.
  • The quality and the cost of the entertainment are altered due to the media like television, though the technology highlights the demand for entertainment and also the delivery of the same.


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